De pista y campo

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De pista y campo
De pista y campo del estadio-2.jpg
El estadio de atletismo es el corazón del deporte
Apodo (s) Pista
Características
Miembros del equipo de
De ambos sexos
Olímpico

De pista y campo (también conocido como el deporte de pista y campo, atletismo de pista y campo, o comúnmente pista justo) es un deporte que comprende varios competitiva competencias atléticas en torno a las actividades de correr , saltar y lanzar. El nombre de este deporte se deriva de la sede de las competiciones: un estadio que cuenta con una pista ovalada corriendo alrededor de una zona de césped. El lanzamiento y pruebas de saltos se realizan generalmente en la zona delimitada central.

El atletismo es uno de los deportes que (junto con el camino que va , cross-country y marcha atlética ) hace que el deporte paraguas de atletismo . Es bajo el estandarte del atletismo que la pista de dos organizaciones internacionales más prestigiosas competiciones de campo y se llevan a cabo: la competición de atletismo en los Juegos Olímpicos y los Campeonatos del Mundo de Atletismo . La Asociación Internacional de Federaciones de Atletismo es el organismo rector internacional de pista y campo.

Eventos de pista y campo en general los deportes individuales con los atletas se desafían entre sí para decidir un vencedor único. Los eventos de carreras son ganadas por el atleta con el mejor tiempo, mientras que los eventos de salto y lanzamiento son ganadas por el atleta que ha conseguido la mayor distancia o altura en el concurso. Los eventos de carrera se clasifican como sprints , medio y eventos de larga distancia , relés , y vallas . Eventos regulares incluyen saltar salto de longitud , triple salto , salto alto y salto con pértiga , mientras que los eventos más comunes son arrojar el lanzamiento de peso , jabalina , disco y martillo . También hay "pruebas combinadas", como el heptatlón y decatlón , en el que los atletas compiten en una serie de los acontecimientos antes mencionados.

Se mantienen registros de las mejores actuaciones en eventos específicos, en el mundo y nacionales los niveles, hasta llegar a un nivel personal. Sin embargo, si los atletas se considera que han violado las reglas del evento o los reglamentos, están descalificados de la competencia y sus marcas se borran. Los atletas usan ropa pequeña que hacen más fácil correr, los hombres usan pantalones cortos y camisas sin mangas, mientras que las mujeres usan la piscina, como trajes.

[ editar ] Historia

Un jarrón griego de 500 aC que representa a un concurso de funcionamiento

El deporte de pista y campo tiene sus raíces en humanos prehistoria . Eventos de pista y campo de estilo se encuentran entre los más antiguos de todos los deportes competiciones , como las carreras, saltos y lanzamientos son las formas naturales y universales de la expresión física humana. Los primeros ejemplos registrados de la pista y eventos organizados de campo en una fiesta deportiva son los Juegos Olímpicos Antiguos . En los Juegos por primera vez en el año 776 AC en Olimpia, Grecia , sólo un caso fue impugnado: la carrera pedestre estadio . [1] El alcance de los Juegos ampliado en los últimos años para incluir más competencias en ejecución, pero la introducción del antiguo pentatlón olímpico marcó un paso hacia la pista y campo, como se reconoce hoy en día - que incluía una competencia de cinco eventos del salto de longitud , lanzamiento de jabalina , lanzamiento de disco , la carrera de estadio pie, y la lucha libre . [2] [3]

Eventos de pista y campo también estuvieron presentes en la Panhelénico Juegos en Grecia alrededor de este período, y se extienden a Roma en Italia alrededor del año 200 aC. [4] [5] Después del período de la antigüedad clásica (en la que el deporte era en gran parte greco-romano influencia) nueva pista y campo comenzó a desarrollar en algunas partes del norte de Europa en la Edad Media . El puesto de piedra y lanzamiento de peso competiciones populares entre los celtas sociedades en Irlanda y Escocia , fueron precursores de la moderna lanzamiento de bala y lanzamiento de martillo eventos. Uno de la última pista y campo a desarrollar es el salto con pértiga , que se derivaba de competiciones como el Fierljeppen concursos en la tierras bajas del norte de Europa en el siglo 18.

Los primeros modelos de vallas en el club atlético de Detroit en 1888.

Un seguimiento discreto moderno y competencias de campo, aparte de festivales deportivos en general, se registraron por primera vez en el siglo 19. Estos fueron organizados normalmente por las instituciones educativas , organizaciones militares y los clubes deportivos como competiciones entre los centros rival. [6] competitivo vallas por primera vez a estar cerca de ese punto, con el advenimiento de la carrera de obstáculos en Inglaterra en 1850. [7] El Athletic Association Amateur se estableció en Inglaterra en 1880 como el primer organismo nacional para el deporte del atletismo y, en este grupo, el atletismo se convirtió en el foco de la anual Campeonato AAA . Los Estados Unidos también comenzó a organizar un concurso nacional anual - la pista al aire libre y EE.UU. Campeonato de Campo - celebró por primera vez en 1876 por el New York Athletic Club . [8] Tras el establecimiento de los deportes en general los órganos de gobierno de los Estados Unidos (la Unión Atlética Amateur en 1888) y Francia (la Unión de sociedades francesas de deportes Athlétiques en 1889), los eventos de pista y campo comenzó a ser promovido y codificado.

Jim Thorpe fue víctima de los primeros principios de aficionados de este deporte y perdió su medalla olímpica

El establecimiento del moderno Juegos Olímpicos a finales del siglo 19 marcó un nuevo récord de pista y campo. El programa olímpico de atletismo , que incluye eventos de pista y campo, más un maratón de la raza, contiene muchas de las competiciones deportivas más importante de los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano 1896 . Los Juegos Olímpicos también se consolida el uso del sistema métrico en la pista internacional y eventos de campo, tanto para distancias de carrera y para la medición de saltos y lanzamientos. El programa olímpico de atletismo ampliado en gran medida en las próximas décadas, y concursos de pista y campo permaneció entre la mayoría de los Juegos destacados. Los Juegos Olímpicos fue la competencia de elite para pista y campo, y sólo a deportistas amateurs compiten podía. De pista y campo seguirá siendo un deporte de gran parte de aficionados, ya que esta regla se aplicaba rigurosamente: Jim Thorpe fue despojado de su pista y medallas de campo de la Juegos Olímpicos de 1912 cuando se supo que había jugado béisbol . profesionalmente [9]

Ese mismo año, la Federación Internacional de Atletismo Amateur (IAAF) fue creado, convirtiéndose en el órgano rector internacional de pista y campo, y consagrado el amateurismo como uno de sus principios fundamentales para el deporte. La National Collegiate Athletic Association celebró su primera pista de los hombres al aire libre y el Campeonato de Campo en 1921, por lo que es una de las competiciones más prestigiosas para los estudiantes, y esto fue seguido por la introducción de pista y campo en la inauguración de Juegos Mundiales para Estudiantes en 1923. [ 10] La primera pista de la competencia continental y el campo fue el Campeonato Sudamericano 1919 , que fue seguido por el Campeonato Europeo de Atletismo en 1934. [11] Hasta la década de 1920, de pista y campo había sido casi exclusivamente una actividad masculina solamente. La mujer deportes movimiento llevó a la introducción de cinco pruebas de pista y campo para las mujeres en el atletismo en el 1928 Juegos Olímpicos de Verano y los acontecimientos más mujeres se han introducido gradualmente a medida que progresaron los años (aunque fue sólo hacia el final del siglo, que son los hombres y de mujeres programas se acercó a la paridad de los acontecimientos). Por otra parte, las grandes competiciones de pista y campo para atletas con discapacidad se introdujo por primera vez en el verano de 1960 Juegos Paralímpicos .

Carl Lewis fue uno de los atletas que ayudaron a aumentar el perfil de la pista y campo

Con el surgimiento de numerosos campeonatos regionales, así como el crecimiento de estilo olímpico acontecimientos del multi-deporte (como el juegos de la Commonwealth y los Juegos Panamericanos ), entre la vía competiciones internacionales y atletas de campo se extendió. A partir de 1960, el deporte ganó más de la exposición y el atractivo comercial a través de la cobertura televisiva y el aumento de la riqueza de las naciones. Después de más de medio siglo de amateurismo, el estado de aficionados de este deporte comenzó a ser desplazada por la creciente profesionalismo en la década de 1970. [6] Como resultado, la Unión Atlética Amateur se disolvió en los Estados Unidos y fue reemplazado por un no -amateur cuerpo enfocada exclusivamente en el deporte del atletismo: El Congreso de Atletismo (más tarde la pista EE.UU. y de campo .) [12] La IAAF hizo lo mismo en 1982, abandonando el amateurismo, y más tarde la eliminación de todas las referencias a ella desde su nombre por el cambio de marca a sí misma como la Asociación Internacional de Federaciones de Atletismo. [6] El año siguiente vio la creación del Campeonato del Mundo de Atletismo - la primera competición mundial de atletismo, que sólo se convirtió en una de las vías y más prestigiosas competiciones de campo, junto con los Juegos Olímpicos.

El perfil de este deporte alcanzó un nuevo máximo en la década de 1980, con un número de atletas que cada vez los nombres de los hogares (por ejemplo, Carl Lewis , Sergey Bubka , Sebastian Coe , Zola Budd y Florence Griffith-Joyner ). Muchos récords mundiales se rompieron en este período, y el añadido elemento político entre los competidores de los Estados Unidos, Alemania Oriental y la Unión Soviética, en reacción a la Guerra Fría , sólo sirvió para avivar la popularidad de este deporte. El aumento de la capacidad comercial de pista y campo se reunió también con la evolución de la aplicación de las ciencias del deporte , y hubo muchos cambios en los métodos de entrenamiento, los regímenes de la dieta del atleta, servicios de capacitación y equipamiento deportivo. Esto fue acompañado también por un aumento en el uso de sustancias dopantes , y casos destacados, como los medallistas de oro olímpicos de Ben Johnson y Marion Jones , dañó la imagen pública y la comercialización del deporte.

Desde la década de 1990, de pista y campo se hizo cada vez más profesional e internacional, como la IAAF adquirida en 200 naciones miembros. El Campeonato del Mundo de Atletismo se convirtió en una competición totalmente profesional con la introducción del dinero del premio en 1997, [6] y en 1998 la IAAF Golden League - una serie anual de seguimiento y reuniones importantes sobre el terreno en Europa - proporcionan un mayor nivel de incentivo económico en la forma de un bote de EE.UU. $ 1 millón. En 2010, la serie fue sustituida por la más lucrativa Liga IAAF Diamond que comprende reuniones en Europa, Asia, América del Norte y Oriente Medio -. la primera serie anual de reuniones en todo el mundo alguna vez de pista y campo [13]

[ editar ] Eventos

Las pruebas de atletismo se dividen en tres grandes categorías: las pruebas de pista, los eventos de campo y pruebas combinadas. La mayoría de los atletas tienden a especializarse en un solo evento (o tipo de evento), con el objetivo de perfeccionar sus actuaciones, aunque el objetivo de los atletas de pruebas combinadas es llegar a ser competentes en una serie de disciplinas. Pruebas de pista incluyen correr en una pista más de una distancia especificada y en el caso de las vallas y obstáculos eventos, se pueden colocar obstáculos en la pista. También hay carreras de relevos en la que los equipos de los atletas correr y pasar en un bastón de mando a su miembro del equipo al final de una cierta distancia.

Hay dos tipos de eventos de campo: saltos y lanzamientos. En competiciones de salto, los atletas son juzgados por cualquiera de la longitud o la altura de sus saltos. Las actuaciones de saltar los eventos de distancia se miden a partir de un tablero o marcador, y cualquier atleta sobrepasar esta marca se considera que han ensuciado. En los saltos de altura, un atleta debe limpiar su cuerpo sobre una barra transversal sin tocar la barra de la normas de apoyo. La mayoría de los eventos de salto sin ayuda, aunque los atletas se impulsan verticalmente con el propósito de Piedra palos en el salto con pértiga .

Los lanzamientos incluyen lanzar una aplicación (por ejemplo, un peso pesado, jabalina o disco) desde un punto de set, con los atletas a ser juzgado en la distancia que el objeto se lanza. Eventos combinados implican el mismo grupo de atletas disputando un número de pista y campo diferente. Los puntos se dan por su desempeño en cada evento y el atleta con el mayor total de puntos al final de todos los eventos es el ganador.

Mundo oficial del campeonato pista y campo de eventos
Pista Campo Pruebas combinadas
Sprints De medio fondo De larga distancia Obstáculos Relés Saltos Lanza
60 m
100 m
200 m
400 m
800 m
1500 m
3000 m
5000 m
10.000 m
60 m vallas
100 m vallas
110 m vallas
400 m vallas
3000 m obstáculos
4 x 100 m relevo
4 × 400 m relevo
Salto de longitud
Triple salto
Salto de altura
Salto con pértiga
Lanzamiento de peso
Lanzamiento de disco
Lanzamiento de martillo
Lanzamiento de jabalina
Pentatlón
Heptatlón
Decatlón


[ editar ] Se ejecuta

[ editar ] Sprints

El final de una carrera de los 100 m

Carreras en distancias cortas, o sprints , se encuentran entre los más antiguos concursos en marcha. Las primeras 13 ediciones de los Juegos Olímpicos Antiguos aparece un solo evento - la raza estadio ., que fue literalmente una carrera de un extremo de la cancha a la otra [1] Sprint eventos se centran en los atletas alcanzar y mantener su velocidad de circulación lo más rápido posible . Hay tres eventos sprint que se encuentran actualmente en los Juegos Olímpicos y Campeonatos del Mundo al aire libre: los 100 metros , 200 metros y 400 metros . Estos eventos tienen sus raíces en las carreras de medidas imperiales que fueron alterados posteriormente a métrico: los 100 m evolucionado a partir de las 100 yardas , [14] los 200 m distancia venía del estadio (o 1 / 8 de milla ), [15 ] y los 400 m fue el sucesor del 440 yardas o la raza cuarto de milla. [16]

A nivel profesional, los velocistas comenzar la carrera por asumir una posición en cuclillas en la parrilla de salida antes de inclinarse hacia adelante y poco a poco entrando en una posición vertical, como la carrera se desarrolla y el impulso que se gana. [17] Los atletas permanecerán en el mismo carril en la pista de atletismo a lo largo de todos los eventos de carreras de velocidad, [16] con la única excepción de los 400 m en el interior. Las carreras de hasta 100 m se centran principalmente en la aceleración a la velocidad máxima de un atleta. [17] Todas las carreras más allá de esta distancia cada vez más incorporar un elemento de resistencia. [18] La fisiología humana dicta que un corredor de casi la velocidad máxima no puede ser mantenido por más de treinta segundos, como el ácido láctico se acumula y músculos de las piernas comienzan a ser privado de oxígeno . [16]

La 60 metros es un evento bajo techo común y es un evento de campeonato mundial bajo techo. Otros menos comunes incluyen eventos de la 50 metros , 55 metros , 300 metros y 500 metros que se utilizan en algunos de secundaria y universitarios las competencias de los Estados Unidos. Los 150 metros , aunque rara vez se compitió, tiene una historia repleta de estrellas: Pietro Mennea ha marcado un mejor mundo en 1983, [19] campeones olímpicos Michael Johnson y Donovan Bailey se fue de cabeza a cabeza en la distancia en 1997, [20] y Usain Bolt mejoró la marca de Mennea en 2009. [19]

[ editar ] de media distancia

Arne Andersson (izquierda) y Gunder Hägg (derecha) se rompió una serie de registros de media distancia del mundo en la década de 1940

El medio más común de las pruebas de pista distancia son los 800 metros , 1500 metros y la carrera de una milla , aunque la de 3000 metros también puede ser clasificado como un evento de media distancia. [21] La yarda 880 , o milla y media, fue el antepasado de los 800 m de distancia y que tiene sus raíces en las competiciones en el Reino Unido en la década de 1830. [22] El 1500 m se produjo como resultado de la ejecución de tres vueltas de una pista de 500 m, que era un lugar común en la Europa continental en el siglo 20. [ 23]

Corredores empiezan la carrera desde una posición de pie a lo largo de una línea curva de partida y después de escuchar la pistola del juez de salida se dirigen hacia la pista más interna de seguir la ruta más rápida hasta la meta. En 800 carreras m atletas comienzan en un punto de partida se tambaleó antes de la vuelta en la pista y que deben permanecer en sus carriles para los primeros 100 m de la carrera. [24] Esta norma se introdujo con el fin de reducir la cantidad de empujones física entre corredores en las primeras etapas de la carrera. [22] Fisiológicamente, estos eventos de media distancia de la demanda que los atletas tienen una buena aeróbico y sistemas de energía anaeróbica produciendo , y que también tienen una fuerte resistencia a la velocidad . [25]

Los 1500 m y eventos millas ejecutar históricamente han sido algunos de los más prestigiosos de pista y campo. Rivales sueco Gunder Hägg y Andersson Arne rompió unos a otros 1.500 metros y millas récords del mundo en varias ocasiones en la década de 1940. [26] [27] La importancia de las distancias se mantuvieron por Roger Bannister , que (en 1954) fue el primero para ejecutar el largo difícil milla de cuatro minutos , [28] [29] y Jim Ryun exploits 's sirvió para popularizar el entrenamiento de intervalo . [23] entre las razas rivales británicos Sebastian Coe , Steve Ovett y Steve Cram distancia caracterizada medio funcionando en 1980 . [30] Desde la década de 1990, los africanos del norte, como Noureddine Morceli de Argelia y de Hicham El Guerrouj de Marruecos pasó a dominar el 1500 y millas eventos. [23]

Más allá de las distancias cortas carreras de velocidad de los acontecimientos, factores tales como las reacciones de un atleta y la velocidad máxima llega a ser menos importantes, mientras que las cualidades tales como el ritmo tácticas, la raza y la resistencia a ser más. [22] [23]

[ editar ] de larga distancia

Kenenisa Bekele de un acontecimiento distancia larga trayectoria

Hay tres la distancia común de larga data los acontecimientos en las competiciones de pista y campo: 3000 metros , 5000 metros y metros de 10.000 . Las dos últimas carreras de ambos eventos Olímpicos y el Campeonato del Mundo al aire libre, mientras que los 3000 m se celebra en el Campeonato del Mundo de pista cubierta . Los 5000 m, y 10.000 m acontecimientos tienen sus raíces históricas en las carreras de tres kilómetros y 6 kilómetros. Los 3000 m fue utilizado históricamente como un evento de una mujer de larga distancia, entrando en el programa del Campeonato del Mundo en 1983 y el programa olímpico en 1984, pero fue abandonada en favor de una de las mujeres 5000 el evento m en 1995. [31]

En cuanto a las normas de competencia y las exigencias físicas, las pruebas en pista larga distancia tienen mucho en común con las carreras de media distancia, a excepción de que la estimulación, la resistencia tácticas, y la raza son factores mucho más en las actuaciones. [32] [33] Sin embargo, un número de atletas han logrado el éxito en pruebas de larga distancia tanto de mediano y largo plazo, incluyendo Saïd Aouita , que estableció récords mundiales de 1.500 m en 5000 m. [34] El uso de ritmo-set en eventos de larga distancia es muy común a nivel de élite, aunque no son presente en las competiciones de nivel de campeonato como todos los competidores calificados quieren ganar. [33] [35]

Los eventos de larga distancia vía ganado popularidad en la década de 1920 los logros de los " finlandeses vuelo ", tales como múltiples campeón olímpico de Paavo Nurmi . Los éxitos de Emil Zátopek en la década de 1950 promovió una intensa métodos de entrenamiento de intervalos, pero Ron Clarke 's del mundo récord de hazañas estableció la importancia de la formación natural y funcionando, incluso de ritmo. La década de 1990 vio el surgimiento de los corredores norte y el este de África en eventos de larga distancia. Los atletas de Kenia y Etiopía, en particular, han permanecido desde entonces dominante en estos eventos. [31]

[ editar ] Los relés

Carreras de relevos son la única pista y campo en caso de que un equipo de corredores compiten directamente contra los otros equipos. [36] Por lo general, un equipo se compone de cuatro corredores del mismo sexo. Cada corredor se completa la distancia especificada (en adelante, una pierna) antes de la entrega de un bastón de mando a un compañero de equipo, que comienza su pierna al recibir el bastón de mando. Por lo general, un área designada en el que los atletas deben cambiar el bastón de mando. Los equipos pueden ser descalificados si no completa el cambio dentro de la zona, o si el testigo se interrumpe durante la carrera. Un equipo también puede ser descalificado si sus corredores se considera que han impedido deliberadamente a otros competidores.

Niñas entregar el bastón de mando en una carrera de relevos en Leipzig en 1950

Carreras de relevos surgió en los Estados Unidos en la década de 1880 como una variación en las carreras de la caridad entre los bomberos , que sería la mano de un rojo pendón a sus compañeros de equipo por cada 300 metros. Hay dos pruebas de relevos muy común: el relevo 4 × 100 metros y el relevo 4 × 400 metros . Ambos eventos entró en el programa olímpico en los 1912 Juegos Olímpicos de verano después de que un hombre de una sola vez de relevo combinado aparece en Juegos Olímpicos de 1908. [37] El 4 × 100 eventos m es mantenido estrictamente dentro del mismo carril en la pista, lo que significa que el equipo en conjunto funciona un circuito completo de la pista. Equipos en un 4 × 400 m evento permanecen en su propio carril hasta que el corredor de la segunda etapa pasa a la primera curva, en la que los corredores pueden dejar su punto de carriles en dirección a la parte más interna del circuito. Para el cambio overs segundo y tercer relevo, los compañeros de equipo deben alinearse con respecto a su posición en el equipo -. Principales equipos tomar el carril interior, mientras que sus compañeros de equipo de los equipos más lentos que esperar el relevo en los carriles exteriores [36] [38]

La IAAF mantiene récords mundiales en cinco diferentes tipos de relés de la pista. Al igual que con 4 x 100 my 4 × 400 m eventos, todas las razas forman equipos de cuatro atletas que corren la misma distancia, con las distancias con menor frecuencia impugnada es el de 4 × 200 m , 4 × 800 metros y relevos 4 × 1500 m . [ 39] Otros eventos incluyen la distancia relevo combinado (que comprende las piernas de los 1200 m, 400 m, 800 m, y 1600 m), que se celebran con frecuencia en los Estados Unidos, y un relé de velocidad - conocido como el relevo combinado sueco - que es popular en Escandinavia y también se ofrece en el Campeonato Mundial Juvenil de Atletismo del programa. [40] las pruebas de relevos tienen una participación importante en los Estados Unidos, donde una serie de reuniones de gran tamaño (o carnavales relevo ) se centra casi exclusivamente en las pruebas de relevos. [41]

[ editar ] vallas

Una mujer de 400 m vallas carrera en el Campeonato de Holanda 2007

Carreras con obstáculos como los obstáculos se popularizó por primera vez en el siglo 19 en Inglaterra. [42] El primer evento conocido, que se celebró en 1830, fue una variante de la carrera de 100 yardas que incluyó fuertes barreras de madera como obstáculos. A la competencia entre los clubes de Oxford y Cambridge en 1864 Athletic de este refinado, la celebración de una carrera de 120 yardas (109,72 m), que tenía diez obstáculos de 3 pies y 6 pulgadas (1,06 m) de altura (10 metros cada puesto (9,14 m) de distancia), con los primeros obstáculos y final de 15 metros de la salida y llegada, respectivamente. Organizadores de francés adaptado a la raza en un indicador (la adición de 28 cm) y los fundamentos de esta carrera, la de los hombres 110 metros con vallas , se ha mantenido prácticamente sin cambios. [43] El origen de la 400 metros con vallas también se encuentra en Oxford, donde (alrededor de 1860) una competencia se llevó a cabo más de 440 yardas y doce de madera 1,06 m de alto se colocaron barreras a lo largo del curso. Las regulaciones modernas se derivan de la Juegos Olímpicos de Verano 1900 : la distancia se fijó en 400 m, mientras que diez obstáculos de 3 pies (91.44 cm) se colocaron 35 metros de distancia en la pista, con los obstáculos iniciales y finales que 45 m por 40 m de distancia de el inicio y final, respectivamente. [44] los obstáculos de las mujeres son ligeramente inferiores a los 84 cm para el evento de 100 metros y 76 cm (2 pies 6 pulgadas) para el evento de 400 metros. [43] [44]

Con mucho, los eventos más comunes son los 100 metros con vallas para mujeres, 110 m vallas para hombres y 400 m vallas para ambos sexos. Los 110 m se ha presentado en todos los Juegos Olímpicos modernos, mientras que los 400 m se introdujo en la segunda edición de los Juegos. [43] [44] de las mujeres inicialmente compitieron en los 80 metros vallas evento, que entró en el programa olímpico en 1932 . Esto se extendió a los 100 metros vallas en los Juegos Olímpicos de 1972, [43] , pero no fue hasta 1984 que una mujer de 400 m con vallas tuvo lugar en los Juegos Olímpicos (de haber sido introducido en el Campeonato 1983 del mundo en atletismo el año anterior). [44]

Los hombres que atraviesan el salto de agua en un concurso de carrera de obstáculos

Fuera de los eventos de los obstáculos, los obstáculos raza es la otra pista y campo, que incluye eventos obstáculos. Así como los eventos vallas, la carrera de obstáculos tiene su origen en la competencia estudiantil de Oxford, Inglaterra. Sin embargo, este evento nació como una variante humana de la original carrera de obstáculos de la competencia en las carreras de caballos . Un evento de carrera de obstáculos se llevó a cabo en una pista para los campeonatos de 1879 y el 1900 Inglés Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de los hombres destacados 2500 m y 4000 m con obstáculos carreras. El evento se llevó a cabo en varias distancias hasta los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano 1920 marcó el ascenso de la carrera de obstáculos de 3000 metros como el caso estándar. [45] La IAAF establecen las normas del evento en 1954, y el evento se realiza en un circuito de 400 metros que incluye un salto de agua en cada vuelta. [46] A pesar de la larga historia de la carrera de obstáculos de los hombres en el atletismo, carrera de obstáculos de las mujeres sólo obtuvieron el estatus de campeonato mundial en 2005, con su aparición olímpica primera venida en el año 2008.

[ editar ] Salto

[ editar ] Salto de longitud

Naide Gomes en la fase de salto del evento

El salto de longitud es una de las más antiguas de pista y campo, que tiene sus raíces en uno de los eventos dentro del pentatlón griego antiguo concurso. Los atletas que toman un corto plazo y saltar en un área de desenterrar la tierra, con el ganador que es el que saltó más lejos. [47] pequeñas pesas ( halteras ) se llevaron a cabo en cada mano en el salto luego se lanzó hacia atrás y cayó cerca de al final con el fin de ganar impulso y distancia adicional. [48] El salto largo moderna y estandarizada en Inglaterra y los Estados Unidos alrededor de 1860, se parece a la antigua evento aunque no se utilizan pesas. Atletas de velocidad a lo largo de una longitud de pista que lleva hasta un trampolín y un cajón de arena . [49] Los atletas deben saltar antes de una línea marcada y la distancia logrado se mide desde el punto más cercano de arena que estaba preocupado por el cuerpo del atleta. [ 50]

La competición de atletismo en los Juegos Olímpicos primera aparece la competencia de hombres de salto de longitud y un concurso de la mujer se introdujo en el 1948 Juegos Olímpicos de Verano . [49] jumpers profesionales a largo suelen tener una fuerte aceleración y la capacidad de sprint. Sin embargo, los atletas deben tener también un paso consistente que les permita despegar cerca de la tabla mientras que todavía mantiene su velocidad máxima. [50] [51] Además de la tradicional salto de longitud, un salto en largo en el que existe competencia los atletas deben saltar desde una posición estática, sin la ayuda de un periodo previo. Una versión masculina de este evento contó en el programa olímpico desde 1900 hasta 1912. [52]

[ editar ] Triple salto

Al igual que en el salto de longitud, triple salto se lleva a cabo en una pista en dirección a un cajón de arena. Originalmente, los atletas se subían en la misma pierna dos veces antes de saltar en el hoyo, pero se cambió a la actual "hop, step y saltar" patrón a partir de 1900. [53] Existe cierta controversia sobre si el salto triple fue impugnada en Grecia antigua: mientras que algunos historiadores afirman que un concurso de tres saltos se produjo en los Juegos Antiguos, [53] otros como Stephen G. Miller creen que esto es incorrecto, lo que sugiere que la creencia se deriva de una cuenta mitificada de Phayllus de Croton haber saltado 55 antigua pies (alrededor de 16,3 m). [48] [54] El Libro de Leinster , un manuscrito irlandés del siglo 12, los registros de la existencia de Geal-ruith (triple salto) a los concursos en los antiguos Juegos Tailteann . [55]

Phillips Idowu en las fases del triple salto

La competición masculina de triple salto ha sido siempre presente en los Juegos Olímpicos modernos, pero no fue hasta 1993 que una versión femenina ganó estado del Campeonato del Mundo y llegó a tener su aparición olímpica primeros tres años después. [53] A los hombres de salto en triples evento contó en el 1900 y 1904 los Juegos Olímpicos, pero estos concursos se han convertido en muy poco común, aunque todavía se utiliza como un simulacro de ejercicio no competitivo. [56]

[ editar ] Salto de altura

Un atleta con el Flop Fosbury a saltar por encima de la barra de

The first recorded instances of high jumping competitions were in Scotland in the 19th century. [ 57 ] Further competitions were organised in 1840 in England and in 1865 the basic rules of the modern event were standardised there. [ 58 ] Athletes have a short run up and then take off from one foot to jump over a horizontal bar and fall back onto a cushioned landing area. [ 59 ] The men's high jump was included in the 1896 Olympics and a women's competition soon followed in 1928.

Jumping technique has played a significant part in the history of the event. High jumpers typically cleared the bar feet first in the late 19th century, using either the Scissors , Eastern cut-off or Western roll technique. The straddle technique became prominent in the mid-20th century, but Dick Fosbury overturned tradition by pioneering a backwards and head-first technique in the late 1960s – the Fosbury Flop – which won him the gold at the 1968 Olympics . This technique has become the overwhelming standard for the sport from the 1980s onwards. [ 58 ] [ 60 ] The standing high jump was contested at the Olympics from 1900 to 1912, but is now relatively uncommon outside of its use as an exercise drill.

[ edit ] Pole vault

Anna Giordano Bruno releases the pole after clearing the bar

In terms of sport, the use of poles for vaulting distances was recorded in Fierljeppen contests in the Frisian area of Europe, and vaulting for height was seen at gymnastics competitions in Germany in the 1770s. [ 61 ] One of the earliest recorded pole vault competitions was in Cumbria , England in 1843. [ 62 ] The basic rules and technique of the event originated in the United States. The rules required that athletes do not move their hands along the pole and athletes began clearing the bar with their feet first and twisting so that the stomach faces the bar. Bamboo poles were introduced in the 20th century and a metal box in the runway for planting the pole became standard. Landing matresses were introduced in the mid-20th century to protect the athletes who were clearing increasingly greater heights. [ 61 ]

The modern event sees athletes run down a strip of track, plant the pole in the metal box, and vault over the horizontal bar before letting go of the pole and falling backwards onto the landing matress. [ 63 ] While earlier versions used wooden, metal or bamboo, modern poles are generally made from artificial materials such as fibreglass or carbon fibre . [ 64 ] The pole vault has been an Olympic event since 1896 for men, but it was over 100 years later that the first women's world championship competition was held at the 1997 IAAF World Indoor Championships . The first women's Olympic pole vaulting competition occurred in 2000. [ 61 ]

[ edit ] Throwing

[ edit ] Shot put

Remigius Machura preparing to throw within the circle

The genesis of the shot put can be traced to pre-historic competitions with rocks: [ 65 ] in the middle ages the stone put was known in Scotland and the steinstossen was recorded in Switzerland. In the 17th century, cannonball throwing competitions within the English military provided a precursor to the modern sport. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] The modern rules were first laid out in 1860 and legal throws had to be taken within a square throwing area of seven feet (2.13 m) on each side. This was amended to a circle area with a seven foot diameter in 1906 and the weight of the shot was standardised to 16 pounds (7.26 kg). Throwing technique was also refined over this period, with bent arm throws being banned as they were deemed too dangerous and the side-step and throw technique arising in the United States in 1876. [ 66 ]

The shot put has been an Olympic sport for men since 1896 and a women's competition using a 4 kg (8.82 lb) shot was added in 1948. Further throwing techniques have arisen since the post-war era: in the 1950s Parry O'Brien popularised the 180 degree turn and throw technique commonly known as the "glide," breaking the world record 16 times along the way, while Aleksandr Baryshnikov and Brian Oldfield introduced the "spin" or rotational technique in 1976. [ 66 ] [ 68 ]

[ edit ] Discus throw

Zoltán K?vágó preparing to spin and throw the discus

As one of the events within the ancient pentathlon, the history of the discus throw dates back to 708 BC. [ 69 ] In ancient times a heavy circular disc was thrown from a set standing position on a small pedestal , and it was this style that was revived for the 1896 Olympics. [ 70 ] This continued until the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, which featured both the ancient style and the increasingly popular modern style of turning and throwing. By the 1912 Olympics, the ancient standing throw style had fallen into disuse and contests starting within a 2.5 m squared throwing area became the standard. [ 71 ] The discus implement was standardised to 2 kg (4.4 pounds) in weight and 22 cm (8 inches) in diameter in 1907. [ 70 ] The women's discus was among the first women's events on the Olympic programme, being introduced in 1928. [ 72 ]

[ edit ] Javelin throw

Bregje Crolla beginning to throw the javelin

As an implement of war and hunting, javelin throwing began in prehistoric times. [ 73 ] Along with the discus, the javelin was the second throwing event in the ancient Olympic pentathlon. Records from 708 BC show two javelin competition types co-existing: throwing at a target and throwing the javelin for distance. It was the latter type from which the modern event was derived. [ 74 ] In ancient competitions, athletes would wrap an ankyle (thin leather strip) around the javelin which acted as a sling to gain extra distance. [ 75 ] The javelin throw gained much popularity in Scandinavia in the late 18th century and athletes from the region continue to be among the most dominant throwers in men's competitions. [ 74 ] The modern event features a short run up on a track and then the thrower releases the javelin before the foul line.

The first Olympic men's javelin throw contest was held in 1908 and a women's competition was introduced in 1932. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] The first javelins were made of various types of wood, but in the 1950s, former athlete Bud Held introduced a hollow javelin, then a metal javelin, both of which increased throwers performances. [ 74 ] Another former athlete, Miklós Németh invented the rough-tailed javelin and throws reached in excess of 100 m – edging towards the limits of stadia. [ 78 ] The distances and the increasing number of horizontal landings led the IAAF to redesign the men's javelin to reduce distance and increase the implement's downward pitching moment to allow for easier measurement. Rough-tailed designs were banned in 1991 and all marks achieved with such javelins were removed from the record books. The women's javelin underwent a similar redesign in 1999. [ 74 ] The current javelin specifications are 2.6 to 2.7 m in length and 800 grams in weight for men, and between 2.2 to 2.3 m and 600 g for women. [ 79 ]

[ edit ] Hammer throw

Yury Shayunou spinning with the hammer within the circle

The earliest recorded precursors to the modern hammer throw stem from the Tailteann Games around 1800 BC, which featured events such as throwing either a weight attached to a rope, a large rock on a wooden handle, or even a chariot wheel on a wooden axle . [ 80 ] Other ancient competitions included throwing a cast iron ball attached to a wooden handle – the root of the term "hammer throw" due to their resemblance to the tools. [ 81 ] In 16th century England, contests involving the throwing of actual blacksmith 's Sledgehammers were recorded. [ 80 ] The hammer implement was standardised in 1887 and the competitions began to resemble the modern event. The weight of the metal ball was set at 16 pounds (7.26 kg) while the attached wire had to measure between 1.175 m and 1.215 m. [ 81 ]

The men's hammer throw became an Olympic event in 1900 but the women's event – using a 4 kg (8.82 lb) weight – was not widely competed until much later, finally featuring on the women's Olympic programme a century later. [ 82 ] The distance's thrown by male athletes became greater from the 1950s onwards as a result of improved equipment using the denser metals, a switch to concrete throwing areas, and more advanced training techniques. [ 83 ] Professional hammer throwers as historically large, strong, sturdy athletes. However, qualities such as refined technique, speed and flexibility have become increasingly important in the modern era as the legal throwing area has been reduced from 90 to 34.92 degrees and throwing technique involves three to four controlled rotations. [ 81 ] [ 84 ] [ 85 ]

[ edit ] Combined events

Combined (or multi-discipline) events are competitions in which athletes participate in a number of track and field events, earning points for their performance in each events which goes towards a total points score. Outdoors, the most common combined events are the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon . Due to stadium limitations, indoor combined events competition have a reduced number of events, resulting in the men's heptathlon and the women's pentathlon . Athletes are allocated points based on an international-standard points scoring system, such as the decathlon scoring table .

The Ancient Olympic pentathlon (comprising long jump , javelin, discus, the stadion race and wrestling ) was a precursor to the track and field combined events and this ancient event was restored at the 1906 Summer Olympics ( Intercalated Games ). A men's decathlon was held at the 1904 Summer Olympics , albeit contested between five American and two British athletes.

Composition of combined events
Evento Pista Campo
Men's decathlon 100 m 400 m 1500 m 110 m hurdles Long jump High jump Pole vault Shot put Discus throw Javelin throw
Women's heptathlon 200 m 800 m 100 m hurdles Long jump High jump Shot put Javelin throw
Men's heptathlon 60 m 1000 m 60 m hurdles Long jump High jump Pole vault Shot put
Women's pentathlon 800 m 60 m hurdles Long jump High jump Shot put


[ edit ] Stadia

The Panathinaiko Stadium was the one of the first modern track and field stadiums

[ edit ] Outdoor

The term track and field is intertwined with the stadiums which first hosted track and field competitions. The two basic features of a track and field stadium are the outer oval-shaped running track and an area of turf within this track – the field . In earlier competitions the lengths of the tracks varied: the Panathinaiko Stadium measured 333.33 metres at the 1896 Summer Olympics , while at the 1904 Olympics the distance was a third of a mile (536.45 m) at Francis Field . As the sport developed, the IAAF standardised the length to 400 m and stated that the tracks must be split into six to eight running lanes. Precise widths for the lanes were established, as were regulations regarding the curvature of the track. Tracks made of flattened cinders were popular in the early 20th century but synthetic tracks became standard in the late 1960s. 3M 's Tartan track (an all-weather running track of polyurethane ) gained popularity after its use at the 1968 US Olympic Trials and the 1968 Summer Olympics and it began the process in which synthetic tracks became the standard for the sport. Many track and field stadiums are multi-purpose stadiums , with the running track surrounding a field which is built for other sports such as the various types of football .

A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium

The field of the stadium combines a number of elements for use in the jumping and throwing events. The long jump and triple jump areas comprise a straight, narrow 40-metre running track with a sandpit at one or both ends. Jumps are measured from a take off board – typically a small strip of wood with a plasticine marker attached – which is used to ensure athletes jump from behind the measurement line. The pole vault area is also a 40-metre running track and it has an indentation in the ground (the box) in which poles are planted. Athletes then propel themselves over a crossbar before falling onto a cushioned area of landing mats . The high jump is a stripped down version of this, with an open area of track or field leading up to a crossbar with a square area of landing mats behind it.

The four throwing events generally all begin on one side of the stadium. The javelin throw typically takes place on a piece of track that is central and parallel to the straights of the main running track. The javelin throwing area is a sector shape frequently across the Pitch (sports field) in the middle of the stadium, ensuring that the javelin has a minimal chance of causing damage or injury. The discus throw and hammer throw contests begin in a tall metal cage which is usually situated in one of the corners of the field. The cage reduces the danger of implements being thrown out of the field of play and throws will travel diagonally across the field in the centre of the stadium. The shot put features a circular throwing area with a toe board at one end. The throwing area is a sector . Some stadia also have a water jump area on one side of the field specifically for steeplechase races.

[ edit ] Indoor

Basic indoor venues may be adapted gymnasiums , which can easily accommodate high jump competitions and short track events. Full-size indoor arenas (ie those fully equipped to host all events for the World Indoor Championships ) bear similarities with their outdoor equivalents. Typically, a central area is surrounded by a 200-metre oval track with four to eight lanes. The track may be banked at the turns to allow athletes to run around the radius more comfortably. There is also a second running track going straight across the field area, parallel to the straights of the main circuit. This track is used for the 60 metres and 60 metres hurdles events – competitions which are held almost exclusively indoors. Another common adaptation is a 160 yard track (11 laps to a mile) that fits into a common basketball court sized arena. This was quite popular when races were held at imperial distances, which gradually was phased out by different organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. Examples of this configuration include the Millrose Games at Madison Square Garden , [ 86 ] and the Sunkist Invitational formerly held in the Los Angeles Sports Arena . [ 87 ]

All four of the common jumping events are held at indoor venues. The long and triple jump areas run alongside the central 60 m track and are mostly identical in form to their outdoor counterparts. The pole vault track and landing area are also alongside the central running track. Shot put (or weight throw) is the only throwing event held indoors due to size restrictions. The throwing area is similar to the outdoor event, but the landing sector is a rectangular section surrounded by netting or a stop barrier. [ 88 ]

[ edit ] Rules

[ edit ] Track rules

The rules of track athletics or of track events in athletics as observed in most international athletics competitions are set by the Competition Rules of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The most recent complete set of rules is the 2009 rules that relate only to competitions in 2009. [ 89 ] Key rules of track events are those regarding starting, running and finishing.

[ edit ] Starting

Men assuming the starting position for a sprint race

The start of a race is marked by a white line 5 cm wide. In all races that are not run in lanes the start line must be curved, so that all the athletes start the same distance from the finish. [ 90 ] Starting blocks may be used for all races up to and including 400 m (including the first leg of the 4 x 200 m and 4 x 400 m ) and may not be used for any other race. No part of the starting block may overlap the start line or extend into another lane. [ 91 ] All races must be started by the report of the starter's gun or approved starting apparatus fired upwards after he or she has ascertained that athletes are steady and in the correct starting position. [ 92 ] An athlete may not touch either the start line or the ground in front of it with his or her hands or feet when on his or her marks. [ 93 ] At most international competitions the commands of the starter in his or her own language, in English or in French, shall, in races up to and including 400 m , be "On your marks" and "Set". When all athletes are "set", the gun must be fired, or an approved starting apparatus must be activated. [ 93 ] However, if the starter is not satisfied that all is ready to proceed, the athletes may be called out of the blocks and the process started over.

False start: An athlete, after assuming a final set position, may not commence his starting motion until after receiving the report of the gun, or approved starting apparatus. If, in the judgment of the starter or recallers, he does so any earlier, it is considered a false start. It is deemed a false start if, in the judgment of the starter an athlete fails to comply with the commands "on your marks" or "set" as appropriate after a reasonable time; or an athlete after the command "on your marks" disturbs other athletes in the race through sound or otherwise. If the runner is in the "set" position and moves, then the runner is also disqualified. [ 94 ] As of 2010, any athlete making a false start is disqualified. This rule was already in place in high school and college. [ 95 ]

In International Elite competition, electronically tethered starting blocks sense the reaction time of the athletes. If the athlete reacts in less than 0.1 second, an alert sounds for a recall starter and the offending athlete is guilty of a false start. [ 92 ]

[ edit ] Running the race

In all races run in lanes, each athlete must keep within his allocated lane from start to finish. This also applies to any portion of a race run in lanes. If an athlete leaves the track or steps on the line demarking the track, he/she should be disqualified. [ 96 ] Also, any athlete who jostles or obstructs another athlete, in a way that impedes his progress, should be disqualified from that event. [ 97 ] However, if an athlete is pushed or forced by another person to run outside his lane, and if no material advantage is gained, the athlete should not be disqualified.

There are races that start in lanes and then at a "break" line, the competitors merge. Examples of this are the 800 metres, 4x400 relay and the indoor 400 metres. Variations on this, with alleys made up of multiple lanes on the track, are used to start large fields of distance runners.

[ edit ] The finish

The finish of a race is marked by a white line 5 cm wide. [ 98 ] The athletes must be placed in the order in which any part of their torso (as distinguished from the head, neck, arms, legs, hands or feet) reaches the vertical plane of the nearer edge of the finish line. [ 99 ] Fully automatic timing systems (photo timing) are becoming more and more common at increasingly lower levels of track meets, improving the accuracy, while eliminating the need for eagle-eyed officials on the finish line. Fully automatic timing (FAT) is required for high level meets and any time a (sprint) record is set (though distance records can be accepted if timed by three independent stopwatches).

With the accuracy of the timing systems, ties are rare. Ties between different athletes are resolved as follows: In determining whether there has been a tie in any round for a qualifying position for the next round based on time, a judge (called the chief photo finish judge) must consider the actual time recorded by the athletes to one thousandth of a second. If the judge decides that there has been a tie, the tying athletes must be placed in the next round or, if that is not practicable, lots must be drawn to determine who must be placed in the next round. In the case of a tie for first place in any final, the referee decides whether it is practicable to arrange for the athletes so tying to compete again. If he decides it is not, the result will stand. Ties in other placings remain.

[ edit ] Field rules

In general, most field events allow a competitor to take their attempt individually, under theoretically the same conditions as the other competitors in the competition. Each attempt is measured to determine who achieved the longest distance.

Vertical jumps (High Jump and Pole Vault) set a bar at a particular height. The competitor must clear the bar without knocking it off the standards that are holding the bar (flat). Three failures in a row will end the competitor's participation in the event. The competitor has the option to PASS their attempt, which can be used to strategic advantage (of course that advantage is lost if the competitor misses). A pass could be used to save energy and avoid taking a jump that would not improve their position in the standings. After all competitors have either cleared, passed or failed their attempts at a height, the bar will go up. The amount the bar goes up is predetermined before the competition, though when one competitor remains, that competitor may choose their own heights for the remaining attempts. A record is kept of each attempt by each competitor. After all competitors have taken their attempts, the one jumping the highest is the winner, and so on down the other competitors in the event. Ties are broken by first, the number of attempts taken at the highest height (fewest wins), and then if still tied, by the total number of misses in the competition as a whole. The bar does not go back to a lower height except to break a tie for first place or a qualifying position. If those critical positions are still tied after applying the tiebreakers, all tied competitors will take a fourth jump at the last height. If they still miss, the bar will go down one increment where they will again jump. This process will continue until the tie is broken.

Horizontal jumps (Long Jump and Triple Jump) and all throws must be initiated behind a line. In the case of horizontal jumps, that line is a straight line perpendicular to the runway. In the case of throws, that line is an arc or a circle. Crossing the line while initiating the attempt will invalidate the attempt—it will become a foul. All landings must occur in a sector. For the jumps, that is a sand filled pit, for throws it is a defined sector. A throw landing on the line on the edge of sector is a foul (the inside edge of the line is the outside edge of the sector). Assuming a proper attempt, officials will then measure the distance from the closest landing point back to the line. The measuring tape is carefully straightened to the shortest distance between the point and the line. To accomplish this, the tape must be perfectly perpendicular to the take off line in jumps, or is pulled through the center point of the arc for throws. The officials at the landing end of the tape have the zero, while the officials at the point of initiation will see the length and record the measurement. Whenever a record (or potential record) occurs, that measurement is taken (again) using a steel tape and observed by at least three officials (plus usually the meet referee). Steel tapes tend to be easily bent and damaged, so they are not used to measure everyday competitions. For major competitions, each competitor will get three attempts. The top competitors (usually 8 or 9 depending on that competition's rules or the number of lanes on the track) will get three more attempts. At that level of competition, the order of competitors for those final three attempts are set in order so the competitor in first place at the end of the third round will be last, while the last competitor to qualify will go first. Some meets will rearrange the competition order again for the final round so the final attempt will be taken by the leader at that point. At other competitions, meet management may choose to limit all competitors to four or three attempts. Whatever the format, all competitors get an equal number of attempts.

[ edit ] Organizations

The international governance of track and field falls under the jurisdiction of athletics organisations. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the global governing body for track and field, and athletics as a whole. The governance of track and field at continental and national level is also done by athletics bodies. Some national federations are named after the sport, including USA Track & Field and the Philippine Amateur Track & Field Association , but these organisations govern more than just track and field and are in fact athletics governing bodies. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] These national federations regulate sub-national and local track and field clubs, as well as other types of running clubs . [ 102 ]

[ edit ] Competitions

[ edit ] Olympics and World Championships

The 100 m final at the 2008 Summer Olympics

The major global track and field competitions are both held under the scope of athletics. Track and field contests make up the majority of events on the Olympic athletics programme which occurs every four years. Track and field events have held a prominent position at the Summer Olympics since its inception in 1896, [ 103 ] and the events are typically held in the main stadium of the Olympics. Events such as the 100 metres receive some of the highest levels of media coverage of any Olympic sporting event.

The other two major international competition for track and field are organised by the IAAF. The IAAF had selected the Olympic competition as its world championship event in 1913, but a separate world championships for athletics alone was first held in 1983 – the IAAF World Championships in Athletics . The championships comprised track and field competitions plus the marathon and racewalking competitions. Initially, this worked on a quadrennial basis but, after 1991, it changed to a biennial format. In terms of indoor track and field, the IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics has been held every two years since 1985 and this is the only world championships that consists of solely track and field events.

[ edit ] Other championships

Similar to the event programmes at the Olympics and World Championships, track and field forms a significant part of continental championships. The South American Championships in Athletics , created in 1919, was the first continental championships and the European Athletics Championships became the second championships of this type in 1934. The Asian Athletics Championships and African Championships in Athletics were created in the 1970s and Oceania started its championships in 1990.

There are also indoor continental competitions in Europe ( European Athletics Indoor Championships ) and Asia ( Asian Indoor Athletics Championships ). There has not been a consistent championships for all of North America, which may be (in part) due to the success of both the Central American and Caribbean Championships and the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships . Most countries have a national championship in track and field and, for athletes, these often play a role in gaining selection into major competitions. In some countries there are many track and field championships at high school and college -level which serve to develop the abilities of younger athletes; some of these have achieved significant exposure and prestige, such as the NCAA Track and Field Championship in the United States and the Jamaican High School Championships . [ 104 ] However, the number and status of such competitions significantly vary from country to country.

[ edit ] Multi-sport events

The pole vault competition at the 2007 Pan American Games

Mirroring the role that track and field events have at the Summer Olympics, the sport is featured within the athletics programmes of many major multi-sport events . Among some of the first of these events to follow the Olympic-style model were the World University Games in 1923 , the Commonwealth Games in 1930 , and the Maccabiah Games in 1932 . [ 105 ] The number of major multi-sport events greatly increased during the 20th century and thus did the number of track and field events held within them. Typically, track and field events are hosted at the main stadium of the games.

After the Olympic Games, the most prominent events for track and field athletes include the three IOC-sanctioned continental games: the All-Africa Games , Asian Games , and the Pan American Games . Other games such as the Commonwealth Games and Summer Universiade , and World Masters Games have significant participation from track and field athletes. Track and field is also present at the national games level, with competitions such as the Chinese National Games serving as a the most prestigious national competition for domestic track and field athletes.

[ edit ] Meetings

Runners competing at the 2006 Prefontaine Classic meeting

One-day track and field meetings form the most common and seasonal aspect of the sport – they are the most basic level of track and field competition. Meetings are generally organised annually either under the patronage of an educational institution or sports club, or by a group or business which serves as the meeting promoter . In the case of the former, athletes are selected to represent their club or institution. In the case of privately run or independent meetings, athletes participate on an invitation-only basis. [ 106 ]

A child taking part in a local schools meeting in Cambodia

The most basic type of meetings are all-comers track meets , which are largely small, local, informal competitions that allow people of all ages and abilities to compete. [ 107 ] As meetings become more organized they can gain official sanctioning by the local or national association for the sport. [ 108 ]

At the professional level, meetings began to offer significant financial incentives for all athletes in the 1990s in Europe with the creation of the "Golden Four" competition, comprising meetings in Zürich , Brussels , Berlin and Oslo . This expanded and received IAAF backing as the IAAF Golden League in 1998, [ 109 ] which was later supplemented by the branding of selected meetings worldwide as the IAAF World Athletics Tour . In 2010, the Golden League idea was expanded globally as the IAAF Diamond League series and this now forms the top tier of professional one-day track and field meetings. [ 110 ]

[ edit ] Records

Athletes performances are timed or measured at virtually all track and field competitions. Doing so can not only serve as a way of determining the winner in an event, but it can also be used for historical comparison (ie a record). A large variety of record types exist and men's and women's performances are recorded separately. The foremost types of records are those which organise athlete's performances by the region which they are representing: beginning with national records , then continental records, up to the global or world record level. National governing bodies control the national record lists, the area associations organise their respective continental lists, and the IAAF is the body which ratifies world records.

A graph of the world record progression in the men's 100 metres

The IAAF ratifies track and field world records if they meet their set criteria. The IAAF first published a world records list in 1914, initially for men's events only. There were 53 recognised records in running, hurdling and relay, and 12 field records. World records in women's events began in 1936 as more events were gradually added to the list, but significant changes were made in the late 1970s. First, all records in imperial measurements were abandoned in 1976, with the sole exceptional being the mile run due to the prestige and history of the event. The following year, all world records in sprint events would only be recognised if fully automatic electronic timing was used (as opposed to the traditional hand-timing stopwatch method). In 1981, electronic timing was made compulsory for all world record runs in track and field, with times being recorded to within one hundredth of a second. Two additional types of world record were introduced in 1987: world records for indoor competitions, and world records for junior athletes under 20 years old. [ 111 ]

The next most important record type are those achieved at a specific competition – for example the Olympic records which are the best performances by athletes during events at the Summer Olympics. All major championships and games have their relevant competition records and a large number of track and field meetings keep a note of their meet records. Other record types include: stadium records, records by age range, records by disability, and records by institution or organisation. Cash bonuses are usually offered to athletes if they break significant records, as doing so can generate greater interest and public attendance in track and field competitions.

[ edit ] Doping

Marion Jones , after admitting to doping, lost her Olympic medals, was banned from the sport, and spent six months in jail.

Track and field athletes are banned from ingesting or using certain substances by governing bodies for the sport, from the national to the global level. The IAAF's constitution incorporates the World Anti-Doping Code among other anti-doping measures. [ 112 ] Practices such as blood doping and the use of anabolic steroids , peptide hormones , stimulants , or diuretics can give athletes a physical competitive advantage in track and field. [ 113 ] The use of such substances in track and field is opposed on both ethical and medical grounds. Given that the sport functions by measuring and comparing athletes' performances, performance-enhancing substances create an uneven playing field — athletes who do not use doping substances have a disadvantage over rivals who do. Medically, the use of banned substances may have an adverse effect upon athletes' health. However, some exemptions are made for athletes who take banned substances for therapeutic use, and athletes are not sanctioned for usage in these cases, [ 114 ] such as Kim Collins ' failed drug test due to asthma medication. [ 115 ]

In order to prevent the use of performance-enhancing substances, athletes must submit to drug tests that are conducted both in- and out-of-competition by anti-doping officials or accredited medical staff. [ 114 ] Athletes found to have taken substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency 's banned list receive sanctions and may be banned from competition for a period of time, [ 116 ] reflecting the seriousness of the infraction. However, the use of substances not on the prohibited list may also result in sanctions if the substance is deemed to be similar to a banned substance in either composition or effect. Athletes may also be sanctioned for missing tests, seeking to avoid testing or tampering with results, refusing to submit to testing, through circumstantial evidence, or confession of use. [ 114 ]

Doping has played a significant part in the modern history of track and field. State-sponsored doping in East Germany with hormones and anabolic steroids marked the rise of women from the German Democratic Republic in track and field from the late 1960s to the 1980s. A number of these women, such as Marita Koch , broke world records and were highly successful at international competitions. Some athletes, who were following a doping plan from their teenage years, suffered significant health problems as a result of the regime. [ 117 ] [ 118 ] Ben Johnson ran a new world record in the 100 m at the 1988 Seoul Olympics but was later banned for using anabolic steroids. [ 119 ] In the mid-first decade of the 21st century, the BALCO Scandal eventually resulted in the downfall of prominent sprinters such as Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery , among others, through their usage of banned substances. [ 120 ]

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