Unión Soviética

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Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas
Otros nombres
???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????
Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
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?

?

?
1922-1991 ?
Bandera Emblema del Estado
Lema
?????????? ???? ?????, ????????????!
( Translit. : Proletario vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes ')
Inglés : Trabajadores del mundo, uníos!
Himno
La Internacional (1922-1944)
Himno de la Unión Soviética (1944-1991)
Ussrgymn.ogg
La Unión Soviética después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial
Capital Moscú
Idioma (s) Rusia , muchos otros
Gobierno Unión socialista república soviética , de partido único estado comunista
Líder
- 1922-1924 (primera) Vladimir Lenin
- 1985-1991 (último) Mikhail Gorbachov
Legislatura Congreso de los Soviets y el Comité Ejecutivo Central (1922-1937) del Soviet Supremo (1937-1989, 1991)
Congreso de los Diputados del Pueblo y el Soviet Supremo (1989-1991)
Historia
- Establecido 30 de diciembre 1922
- Disestablished 26 de diciembre 1991
Área
- 1991 22.402.200 kilometros 2 (8,649,538 millas cuadradas)
Población
- 1991 est 293047571
Densidad 13,1 / km 2 (33,9 / km ²)
Moneda Rublo soviético (???) (SUR)
Dominio Internet . Su 2
Código de llamada 7
Precedido por
Sucedido por
SFSR ruso
Transcaucasia SFSR
RSS de Ucrania
RSS de Bielorrusia
Rusia
Georgia
Ucrania
Moldavia
Bielorrusia
Armenia
Azerbaiyán
Kazajstán
Uzbekistán
Turkmenistán
Kirguistán
Tayikistán
Estonia 3
Letonia 3
Lituania 3
1 El 21 de diciembre de 1991, once de las repúblicas ex socialistas declarados en Alma-Ata (con el 12 º República - Georgia - que asisten en calidad de observador) que con la formación de la Comunidad de Estados Independientes de la Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas deja de existir.

Dos asignados, el 19 de septiembre de 1990, en adelante ya existentes.
3 Los gobiernos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania a sí mismos como continua y sin relación con las repúblicas soviéticas respectivos.
Rusia considera que la SSR estonio, letón, lituano y como repúblicas constituyentes legal de la URSS y los predecesores de los modernos estados bálticos.
El Gobierno de los Estados Unidos y un número de otros países, no reconoció la anexión de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania a la URSS como la inclusión legal.

Unión Soviética

Este artículo es parte de la serie:
Política y gobierno de
la Unión Soviética



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La Unión Soviética ( Rusia : ????????? ????, . tr Sovietsky Soyuz), oficialmente la Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS, Rusia : ???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????, tr. Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik IPA: [s?jus s?v ? etsk ? ?x s?ts??l ? ?st ? it??sk ? ?x r ? ?spubl ? ?k] ( escuchar ), abreviado ????, SSSR), fue un constitucionalmente Estado socialista que existió en Eurasia entre 1922 y 1991. Un nombre informal utilizado entre sus habitantes era la Unión (Soyuz).

La Unión Soviética tenía un sistema político de partido único dominado por el Partido Comunista hasta 1990. [1] A pesar de la URSS era nominalmente una unión de repúblicas soviéticas (15 en total después de 1956) con la capital en Moscú , fue en realidad una estructura altamente centralizada estado con una economía planificada .

La revolución rusa de 1917 provocó la caída del Imperio Ruso . Su sucesor, el gobierno provisional ruso , fue de corta duración. Después de la bolcheviques ganaron la posterior Guerra Civil Rusa , la Unión Soviética fue fundada en diciembre de 1922 con la fusión de las Socialista Federativa Soviética Rusa República , Transcaucasia República Socialista Federativa Soviética , la República Socialista Soviética de Ucrania y la República Socialista Soviética de Bielorrusia .

Tras la muerte del primer líder soviético, Vladimir Lenin , en 1924, Joseph Stalin finalmente ganó una lucha de poder [2] y llevó al país a través de una gran escala de industrialización con una economía dirigida y la represión política . [2] [3] En la Segunda Guerra Mundial , en junio de 1941, Alemania y sus aliados invadieron la Unión Soviética, un país con el que había firmado un pacto de no agresión . Después de cuatro años de guerra brutal , la Unión Soviética salió victorioso como uno de los dos el mundo de las superpotencias , el otro es el Estados Unidos .

La Unión Soviética y su Europa del Este estados satélites dedicados a la Guerra Fría , una prolongada lucha global ideológica y política contra los Estados Unidos y su bloque occidental aliados, que finalmente perdió frente a los problemas económicos y los disturbios políticos internos y externos. [4] [5] A finales de 1980, el último líder soviético, Mijail Gorbachov intentó reformar el Estado con sus políticas de perestroika y glasnost , pero la Unión Soviética se derrumbó y fue formalmente disuelto en diciembre de 1991, tras el fallido intento de golpe de agosto . [ 6] La Federación de Rusia, asumió sus derechos y obligaciones. [7]

Contenido

Geografía, el clima y el medio ambiente

Con una superficie de 22.402.200 kilometros cuadrados (8.649.500 millas cuadradas), la Unión Soviética era el estado más grande del mundo. Que cubre una sexta parte de la superficie de la Tierra, su tamaño era comparable a la de América del Norte . Los europeos representaron por parte de un cuarto de la superficie del país, y fue el centro cultural y económico. La parte oriental de Asia extendió al Océano Pacífico al este y Afganistán en el sur, y era mucho menos poblada. Que duró más de 10.000 kilómetros (6.200 millas) al este a oeste a través de 11 husos horarios , y casi 7.200 kilometros (4.500 millas) de norte a sur. Tiene cinco zonas climáticas: la tundra , taiga , estepas , desiertos y montañas.

La Unión Soviética había frontera más larga del mundo, que mide más de 60.000 kilómetros (37.000 millas), las dos terceras partes de ella una línea de costa del Océano Ártico . Al otro lado del estrecho de Bering fue el Estados Unidos . La Unión Soviética se limita Afganistán , China, , Checoslovaquia , Finlandia , Hungría , Irán , Mongolia , Corea del Norte , Noruega , Polonia , Rumania y Turquía desde 1945 hasta 1991.

El río más largo de la Unión Soviética fue el Irtysh . Su pico más alto era el comunismo pico (ahora Ismail Samani pico ) en Tayikistán , en 7495 metros (24.590 pies). El lago más grande del mundo, el Mar Caspio , recaía principalmente en la Unión Soviética. Agua dulce más grande del mundo y el lago más profundo, el lago Baikal , se encontraba en la Unión Soviética.

Historia

La última ruso zar , Nicolás II , gobernó el imperio ruso hasta su abdicación en marzo de 1917, debido en parte a la tensión de los enfrentamientos en la Primera Guerra Mundial . Un breve gobierno provisional ruso tomó el poder, para ser derrocado en la Revolución de Octubre de 1917 (NS noviembre de 1917) por los revolucionarios encabezados por el bolchevique líder , Vladimir Lenin .

La Unión Soviética fue establecida oficialmente en diciembre de 1922 con la unión de los rusos , ucranianos , bielorrusos , y Transcaucasia repúblicas soviéticas, cada uno gobernado por locales bolchevique partes. A pesar de la fundación del estado soviético como una entidad federativa de muchas repúblicas que la componen, cada uno con sus propias entidades políticas y administrativas, el término "Rusia Soviética" - estrictamente aplicables solamente a la República Federativa Socialista de Rusia - a menudo incorrectamente aplicado a todo el país por no soviéticos escritores y políticos.

Revolución y la fundación

Actividad revolucionaria moderna en el Imperio Ruso comenzó con la rebelión de los decembristas en 1825. A pesar de la servidumbre fue abolida en 1861, se llevó a cabo en condiciones poco favorables para los campesinos y sirvió para animar a los revolucionarios. Un parlamento, la Duma de Estado , se estableció en 1906 después de la revolución rusa de 1905 , pero el zar resistido a los intentos de pasar de absoluta a una monarquía constitucional . agitación social continuó y se agravó durante la Primera Guerra Mundial por la derrota militar y la escasez de alimentos en las principales ciudades .

Vladimir Lenin dirigiéndose a una multitud en el año 1920.

Un levantamiento popular espontáneo en San Petersburgo , en respuesta a la decadencia de la economía durante la guerra de Rusia y la moral, culminó en la Revolución de Febrero y el derrocamiento del gobierno imperial marzo 1917 . La autocracia zarista fue reemplazada por el Gobierno ruso provisional, que pretendía llevar a cabo las elecciones para la Asamblea Constituyente de Rusia y de seguir luchando en el lado de la Entente en la Primera Guerra Mundial

Al mismo tiempo, los consejos de trabajadores, conocido como Unión Soviética , surgieron en todo el país. Los bolcheviques , dirigidos por Vladimir Lenin , presionado por la revolución socialista en la Unión Soviética y en las calles. En noviembre de 1917, durante la Revolución de Octubre , que tomó el poder. En diciembre, los bolcheviques firmaron un armisticio con las potencias centrales , aunque en febrero de 1918, los combates se habían reanudado. En marzo, los soviéticos salir de la guerra para siempre y firmó el Tratado de Brest-Litovsk .

Una larga y sangrienta guerra civil rusa se ??produjo entre los rojos y los blancos , a partir de 1917 y terminando en 1923 con los Rojos la victoria. Se incluye la intervención extranjera , la ejecución de Nicolás II y su familia y la hambruna de 1921 , que mató a cerca de cinco millones de dólares. [8] En marzo de 1921, durante un conflicto relacionado con Polonia , la Paz de Riga fue firmado, los territorios en disputa en la división Bielorrusia y Ucrania entre las República de Polonia y la Rusia soviética. La Unión Soviética tuvo que resolver conflictos similares con la recién creada República de Finlandia , la República de Estonia , la República de Letonia y la República de Lituania .

Unificación de las repúblicas

El 28 de diciembre de 1922, en una conferencia de plenipotenciarios de las delegaciones de la SFSR ruso , el SFSR Transcaucasia , la RSS de Ucrania y la RSS de Bielorrusia aprobaron el Tratado de Creación de la URSS [9] y la Declaración de la Creación de la URSS, que forman la Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas. [10] Estos dos documentos fueron confirmados por el primero Congreso de los Soviets de la URSS y firmados por los jefes de las delegaciones, [11] Mijaíl Kalinin , Mikha Tskhakaya, Mijail Frunze , Grigory Petrovsky , y Aleksandr Chervyakov , [12] el 30 de diciembre de 1922.

El 1 de febrero de 1924, la URSS fue reconocida por el Imperio Británico . El mismo año, una Constitución soviética fue aprobado, la legitimación de la unión diciembre 1922.

Una reestructuración intensiva de la economía, la industria y la política del país comenzó en los primeros días del poder soviético en 1917. Una gran parte de esto se hizo de acuerdo con la inicial bolchevique decretos , documentos del gobierno firmado por Vladimir Lenin. Uno de los avances más importantes fue el plan de GOELRO , que prevé una importante reestructuración de la economía soviética basada en la electrificación total del país. El plan fue desarrollado en 1920 y cubre un 10 - a 15 años. Que incluyó la construcción de una red regional de 30 plantas de energía , incluyendo diez grandes centrales hidroeléctricas , y numerosos eléctricos grandes empresas industriales. [13] El plan se convirtió en el prototipo para posteriores planes quinquenales y, básicamente, se cumplió en 1931. [ 14]

Stalin era

Desde sus inicios, el gobierno de la Unión Soviética se basó en la regla de un solo partido del Partido Comunista (bolchevique) . [15] Después de la política económica del comunismo de guerra durante la guerra civil, el gobierno soviético permitió que algunos la empresa privada para convivir junto con la industria nacionalizada en 1920 y confiscación total de alimentos en el campo, fue sustituido por un impuesto a los alimentos (véase Nueva Política Económica ).

Los líderes soviéticos sostuvieron que un gobierno de partido era necesario para asegurar que la "explotación capitalista" no volvería a la Unión Soviética y que los principios del centralismo democrático que representan la voluntad del pueblo. El debate sobre el futuro de la economía siempre y cuando el fondo de una lucha de poder en los años después de la muerte de Lenin en 1924. En un principio, Lenin iba a ser reemplazado por una " troika "compuesta de Grigory Zinoviev de Ucrania , Lev Kamenev de Moscú, y Joseph Stalin de Georgia .

El 3 de abril de 1922, Stalin fue nombrado secretario general del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética . Lenin Stalin había nombrado jefe de la Trabajadores y Campesinos de Inspección , que dio el poder de Stalin considerable. Por consolidar gradualmente su influencia y aislar y fuera de maniobra a sus rivales dentro del partido , Stalin se convirtió en el líder indiscutible de la Unión Soviética y, a finales de la década de 1920, estableció totalitario regla. En octubre de 1927, Grigory Zinoviev y Trotsky León fueron expulsados ??del Comité Central y obligado a exiliarse.

En 1928, Stalin introdujo el Primer Plan Quinquenal para la construcción de una economía socialista . Mientras que abarca el internacionalismo expresado por Lenin en el curso de la Revolución, sino que también pretende construir el socialismo en un solo país . En la industria, el Estado asumió el control de todas las empresas existentes y emprendió un programa intensivo de industrialización . En la agricultura, las granjas colectivas se han establecido en todo el país.

Las hambrunas se produjo, causando millones de muertos, sobrevivientes kulaks fueron perseguidos y muchos enviados a los gulags a hacer trabajos forzados . [16] agitación social continuó en la década de 1930. Stalin Gran Purga resultó en la ejecución o detención de muchos " viejos bolcheviques "que habían participado en la Revolución de Octubre con Lenin. La cifra de muertos es incierto, con una amplia gama de estimaciones. Según los archivos soviéticos desclasificados, en 1937 y 1938, la NKVD arrestó a más de uno y medio millones de personas, de los cuales 681.692 fueron asesinados - un promedio de 1.000 ejecuciones al día. [17] El exceso de muertes durante la década de 1930 en su conjunto se en el rango de 10-11 millones de dólares. [18] Sin embargo, a pesar de la crisis de mediados de 1930 y finales de la Unión Soviética desarrolló una economía industrial potente en los años anteriores a la Segunda Guerra Mundial .

La década de 1930

Los transeúntes ya no prestar atención a los cadáveres de los campesinos muertos de hambre en una calle de Kharkiv , 1933.

La década de 1930 vio a una cooperación más estrecha entre el Occidente y la URSS. De 1932 a 1934, la Unión Soviética, participó en la Conferencia Mundial de Desarme . En 1933, las relaciones diplomáticas entre Estados Unidos y la URSS fueron establecidas. En septiembre de 1934, la Unión Soviética, se unió a la Sociedad de Naciones . Después de la Guerra Civil española estalló en 1936, la URSS apoyó activamente la fuerzas republicanas contra los nacionalistas , que fueron apoyados por la Italia fascista y la Alemania nazi .

En diciembre de 1936, Stalin dio a conocer una nueva Constitución soviética . La constitución fue vista como un triunfo personal para Stalin, que en esta ocasión fue descrita por Pravda como un "genio del nuevo mundo, el hombre más sabio de la época, el gran líder del comunismo". Por el contrario, los historiadores occidentales e historiadores de los países ex soviéticos ocupados han considerado que la constitución como un documento de propaganda sin sentido.

A finales de 1930 se produjo un giro hacia el Eje . En 1938, después de que el Reino Unido y Francia habían concluido el Acuerdo de Munich de Alemania, la URSS trató con los nazis, así, militar y económicamente durante largas conversaciones . Los dos países concluyeron el pacto de no agresión soviético-alemán y el Acuerdo de Comercio alemán-soviético . El pacto de no agresión hizo posible la ocupación soviética de Lituania, Letonia, Estonia , Besarabia, el norte de Bucovina y el este de Polonia . A finales de noviembre del mismo año, incapaz de obligar a la República de Finlandia por la vía diplomática en la mudanza de su frontera de 25 kilómetros (16 millas) al regreso de Leningrado , de José Stalin ordenó la invasión de Finlandia .

En el este, el ejército soviético ganó varias victorias decisivas durante enfrentamientos fronterizos con el imperio japonés en 1938 y 1939. Sin embargo, en abril de 1941, la URSS firmó el Pacto de Neutralidad soviético-japonesa con el Imperio del Japón , el reconocimiento de la integridad territorial de Manchukuo , un japonés estado títere .

La Segunda Guerra Mundial

Soviética Katyusha múltiples de cohetes lanzadores de fuego en Berlín, abril de 1945.

Aunque se ha debatido si la Unión Soviética tenía ninguna intención de invadir Alemania, una vez que fue lo suficientemente fuerte, [19] la misma Alemania rompió el tratado y la invadió la Unión Soviética el 22 de junio de 1941, comenzando lo que se sabía en la URSS como la " Gran Guerra Patriótica ". El Ejército Rojo detuvo el ejército alemán aparentemente invencible en la batalla de Moscú , con la ayuda de un invierno inusualmente duro. La batalla de Stalingrado , que duró desde finales de 1942 a principios de 1943, asestó un duro golpe a los alemanes de la que nunca se ha recuperado completamente y se convirtió en un punto de inflexión de la guerra. Después de Stalingrado, las fuerzas soviéticas condujo a través de Europa del Este a Berlín antes de la rendición de Alemania en 1945 . El ejército alemán sufrió un 80% de sus bajas militares en el frente oriental. [20]

El primer ministro soviético Joseph Stalin , EE.UU. El presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt y el primer ministro británico Winston Churchill (de izquierda a derecha) confieren en Teherán en 1943.

El mismo año, la URSS, en cumplimiento de su acuerdo con los Aliados en la Conferencia de Yalta , denunció el pacto de neutralidad Soviética y Japón en abril de 1945 [21] y la invadieron Manchukuo Japón y otros territorios controlados por el 9 de agosto de 1945. [22] Este conflicto terminó con una victoria soviética decisiva, contribuyendo a la incondicional rendición del Japón y el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

La Unión Soviética sufrió mucho en la guerra, perdiendo alrededor de 27 millones de personas. [23] A pesar de esto, surgió como una superpotencia militar. Una vez que negó el reconocimiento diplomático por el mundo occidental , la Unión Soviética tenía relaciones oficiales con casi todas las naciones de la década de 1940. Un miembro de la Naciones Unidas en su fundación en 1945, la Unión Soviética se convirtió en uno de los cinco miembros permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU , que le dio el derecho de veto de cualquiera de sus resoluciones (ver Unión Soviética y las Naciones Unidas ).

La Unión Soviética mantuvo su posición como una de las dos superpotencias del mundo durante cuatro décadas a través de su hegemonía en Europa Oriental, la fuerza militar, la fortaleza económica, la ayuda a los países en desarrollo , y la investigación científica, especialmente en la tecnología espacial y de armamento.

Guerra Fría

Durante el período de la posguerra, la Unión Soviética, reconstruido y ampliado su economía, mientras que mantiene su control estricto centralizado . Es asistido por la reconstrucción de posguerra en los países de Europa del Este, mientras que los convierte en los estados satélite y las une en una alianza militar (el Pacto de Varsovia ) en 1955, y una organización económica ( el Consejo de Ayuda Mutua Económica o COMECON) a partir de 1949 a 1991, el último interlocutor de la Comunidad Económica Europea . [24] Más tarde, el Comecon suministrado ayuda a la eventual victoria del Partido Comunista de China , y vio crecer su influencia en otras partes del mundo. Ante el temor de sus ambiciones, los aliados durante la guerra de la Unión Soviética, el Reino Unido y los Estados Unidos, se convirtió en sus enemigos. En la subsiguiente guerra fría, las dos partes se enfrentaron indirectamente utilizando la mayoría de los representantes.

Khrushchev era

La extensión máxima territorial de los países del mundo bajo Soviética influencia , después de la Revolución Cubana de 1959 y ante el funcionario chino-soviética división de 1961

Stalin murió el 5 de marzo de 1953. En ausencia de un sucesor mutuamente aceptables, los más altos funcionarios del Partido Comunista optó por la regla de la Unión Soviética en forma conjunta. Nikita Jruschov , que había ganado la lucha por el poder de mediados de 1950, denunció el uso de Stalin de la represión en 1956 y disminuyó controles represivos sobre partido y la sociedad. Esto fue conocido como desestalinización .

Moscú considera la Europa del Este como una zona de amortiguamiento de la defensa preventiva de sus fronteras occidentales, y aseguró su control de la región mediante la transformación de los países de Europa del Este en estados satélites. La fuerza militar soviética fue utilizada para reprimir los levantamientos anti-comunista en Hungría y Polonia en 1956.

A finales de 1950, una confrontación con China en relación con el acercamiento de la URSS con Occidente y lo que Mao Zedong percibido como Kruschev revisionismo llevó a la ruptura chino-soviética . Esto dio lugar a una ruptura en todo el mundo comunista del movimiento, con los regímenes comunistas de Albania , Camboya y Somalia elegir aliarse con China en lugar de la URSS.

Durante este período, la Unión Soviética siguió a darse cuenta de las hazañas científicas y tecnológicas: el lanzamiento del primer satélite artificial, el Sputnik 1 , un perro vivo, Laika , y más tarde, el primer ser humano, Yuri Gagarin , en la órbita de la Tierra. En 1963, Valentina Tereshkova fue la primera mujer en el espacio, y Alexey Leonov se convirtió en la primera persona en caminar en el espacio, en 1965.

Jruschov inició "The Thaw", mejor conocido como deshielo de Jruschov , un cambio complejo en la vida política, cultural y económico en la Unión Soviética. Que incluía a algunos la apertura y contacto con otras naciones y las nuevas políticas sociales y económicas con mayor énfasis en los productos básicos, lo que permite condiciones de vida para aumentar de manera espectacular, mientras que el mantenimiento de altos niveles de crecimiento económico. La censura se relajó también.

Kruschev reformas en la agricultura y la administración, sin embargo, fueron generalmente improductivas. En 1962, precipitó una crisis con Estados Unidos sobre el despliegue soviético de misiles nucleares en Cuba . La Unión Soviética se echó atrás después de que Estados Unidos inició un bloqueo naval, causando vergüenza Khrushchev mucho y la pérdida de prestigio. Él fue removido del poder en 1964.

Brezhnev era

Tras el derrocamiento de Kruschev, otro período de un liderazgo colectivo se produjo, que consta de Leonid Brezhnev como secretario general, Alexei Kosygin como primer ministro y Nikolai Podgorny como Presidente del Presidium, que duró hasta Brezhnev se estableció en la década de 1970 como el líder soviético por excelencia. En 1968 la Unión Soviética y sus aliados del Pacto de Varsovia invadieron Checoslovaquia para poner fin a la Primavera de Praga reformas.

Leonid Brezhnev y Jimmy Carter firman tratado SALT II, 18 de junio de 1979, en Viena .

Brezhnev presidió durante un período de distensión con Occidente (véase SALT I , SALT II , antibalísticos Tratado de Misiles ), mientras que al mismo tiempo la construcción de militares soviéticos podrían.

En octubre de 1977, la tercera Constitución soviética fue aprobado por unanimidad. El estado de ánimo dominante de la dirección soviética en el momento de la muerte de Brezhnev en 1982 fue uno de aversión al cambio. El largo período de gobierno de Brezhnev había venido a ser llamado uno de "statu quo", con un envejecimiento y osificado liderazgo político superior.

Las reformas y la disolución

Gorbachov en uno-a-uno conversaciones con EE.UU. El presidente Ronald Reagan .

Dos desarrollos dominaron la década que siguió: el desmoronamiento cada vez más evidente de las estructuras económicas y políticas de la Unión Soviética, y los intentos de mosaico en las reformas para revertir ese proceso. Kenneth S. Deffeyes argumentó en Más allá del petróleo que el gobierno de Reagan alentó a Arabia Saudita para bajar el precio del petróleo hasta el punto que los soviéticos no podían obtener beneficios vendiendo su petróleo, a fin de que la URSS de divisas las reservas se agotaron. [25]

Siguiente de Brezhnev dos sucesores, figuras de transición con raíces profundas en su tradición, no duró mucho tiempo. Yuri Andropov fue de 68 años de edad y Konstantin Chernenko 72 cuando asumió el poder, ambos murieron en menos de dos años. En un intento de evitar una tercera parte de breve duración líder, en 1985, los soviéticos se volvió a la generación siguiente y selecciona Mijail Gorbachov .

Gorbachov hizo cambios significativos en la economía y la dirección del partido, llama la perestroika . Su política de glasnost libre acceso público a la información después de décadas de censura del gobierno pesados.

Retirar las tropas soviéticas de Afganistán en 1988

Gorbachov también intentó poner fin a la Guerra Fría. En 1988, la Unión Soviética abandonó sus nueve años de guerra en Afganistán y comenzaron a retirar sus fuerzas. A finales de 1980, se negó el apoyo militar a los antiguos estados de la Unión Soviética por satélite, lo que resulta en la caída de varios regímenes comunistas. Con el derribo del Muro de Berlín y con Alemania Oriental y Alemania Occidental persigue la unificación, el Telón de Acero se vino abajo.

A finales de 1980, las repúblicas constituyentes de la Unión Soviética comenzó a movimientos legales o incluso la declaración de la soberanía sobre sus territorios, citando el artículo 72 de la Constitución de la URSS, que establecía que cualquier república componente era libre de separarse. [26] El 7 de abril 1990, se aprobó una ley que permite una república con la secesión si más de dos tercios de sus habitantes votaron a favor en un referéndum. [27] Muchos celebraron sus primeras elecciones libres en la era soviética para sus propias legislaturas nacionales en 1990. Muchas de estas legislaturas procedió a elaborar una legislación que contradice la legislación de la Unión en lo que se conoce como la " Guerra de las Leyes ".

En 1989, el SFSR ruso , que era entonces la república más grande de constituyentes (con aproximadamente la mitad de la población) convocó a un nuevo Congreso de Diputados del Pueblo. Boris Yeltsin fue elegido su presidente. El 12 de junio de 1990, el Congreso declaró la soberanía de Rusia sobre su territorio y procedió a aprobar leyes que trataron de sustituir algunas de las leyes de la URSS. El período de incertidumbre legal continuó a lo largo de 1991 como repúblicas constituyentes lentamente se convirtió de facto independiente.

Un referéndum para la conservación de la URSS se llevó a cabo el 17 de marzo de 1991, con la mayoría de los derechos de la población para la preservación de la Unión en nueve de las 15 repúblicas. El referéndum dio a Gorbachov un empujón menor de edad. En el verano de 1991, el nuevo Tratado de la Unión , que han convertido a la Unión Soviética en una federación mucho más flexible, se acordó por ocho repúblicas.

Yeltsin se encuentra en un tanque para desafiar al golpe de agosto de 1991.

La firma del tratado, sin embargo, fue interrumpido por el golpe de agosto -un intento de golpe de Estado por los miembros de línea dura del gobierno y de la KGB que busca revertir las reformas de Gorbachov y reafirmar el control del gobierno central sobre las repúblicas. Después de que el golpe fracasó, Yeltsin fue visto como un héroe por sus acciones decisivas, mientras que el poder de Gorbachov fue terminado efectivamente. El equilibrio de poder con punta de forma significativa hacia las repúblicas. En agosto de 1991, Letonia y Estonia declararon inmediatamente la restauración de su plena independencia (después de 1990 Lituania ejemplo), mientras que las otras doce repúblicas continuaron discutiendo nuevas, cada vez más flexibles, los modelos de la Unión.

El 8 de diciembre de 1991, los presidentes de Rusia, Ucrania y Bielorrusia firmaron el Tratado de Belovesh , que declaró la Unión Soviética se disolvió y se estableció la Comunidad de Estados Independientes (CEI) en su lugar. Aunque seguía habiendo dudas sobre la autoridad de los acuerdos para hacer esto, el 21 de diciembre de 1991, los representantes de todas las repúblicas soviéticas excepto Georgia firmó el Protocolo de Alma-Ata , que confirmó los acuerdos. El 25 de diciembre de 1991, Gorbachov rindió a lo inevitable y renunció como presidente de la URSS, declarando extinguida la oficina. Se dio la vuelta de los poderes que habían sido creados en la presidencia a Yeltsin, el presidente de Rusia .

Al día siguiente, el Soviet Supremo , el máximo órgano de gobierno de la Unión Soviética, se disolvió. Esto es generalmente reconocida como marca oficial, final disolución de la Unión Soviética como un estado de funcionamiento. Muchas organizaciones, como el ejército soviético y las fuerzas de policía, continuó siendo en su lugar en los primeros meses de 1992, pero fueron eliminados lentamente y retirados de los o absorbida por los nuevos Estados independientes.

Tras la disolución de la Unión Soviética el 26 de diciembre de 1991, Rusia fue reconocido a nivel internacional [28] como su sucesor legal en la escena internacional. A tal fin, Rusia aceptó voluntariamente toda la deuda exterior soviética en el extranjero y afirmó propiedades Soviética como propio. Desde entonces, la Federación de Rusia ha asumido los derechos de la Unión Soviética y obligaciones.

Política

Había tres jerarquías de poder en la Unión Soviética: el poder legislativo representado por el Soviet Supremo de la Unión Soviética , el gobierno representado por el Consejo de Ministros y el Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética (PCUS), el único partido legal y lo último formulador de políticas en el país. [29]

Partido Comunista

The 1983 annual military parade in Moscow, commemorating the 66th anniversary of the October Revolution. The banner at the top reads: "Glory to the CPSU!"

At the top of the Communist Party was the Central Committee , elected at Party Congresses and Conferences. The Central Committee in turn voted for a Politburo (called the Presidium between 1952–1966), Secretariat and the General Secretary (First Secretary from 1953 to 1966), the highest office in the USSR. [ 30 ] Depending on the degree of power consolidation, it was either the Politburo as a collective body or the General Secretary, who always was one of the Politburo members, that effectively led the party and the country [ 31 ] (except for the period of the highly personalized authority of Stalin, exercised directly through his position in the Council of Ministers rather than the Politburo after 1941). [ 32 ] They were not controlled by the general party membership, as the key principle of the party organization was democratic centralism , demanding strict subordination to higher bodies, and elections went uncontested, endorsing the candidates proposed from above. [ 33 ]

The Communist Party maintained its dominance over the state largely through its control over the system of appointments . All senior government officials and most deputies of the Supreme Soviet were members of the CPSU. Of the party heads themselves, Stalin in 1941–1953 and Khrushchev in 1958–1964 were Premiers. Upon the forced retirement of Khrushchev, the party leader was prohibited from this kind of double membership, [ 34 ] but the later General Secretaries for at least some part of their tenure occupied the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet , the nominal head of state . The institutions at lower levels were overseen and at times supplanted by primary party organizations . [ 35 ]

In practice, however, the degree of control the party was able to exercise over the state bureaucracy, particularly after the death of Stalin, was far from total, with the bureaucracy pursuing different interests that were at times in conflict with the party. [ 36 ] Nor was the party itself monolithic from top to bottom, although factions were officially banned. [ 37 ]

Gobierno

The Grand Kremlin Palace , seat of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in 1982

The Supreme Soviet (successor of the Congress of Soviets and Central Executive Committee ) was nominally the highest state body for most of the Soviet history, [ 38 ] at first acting as a rubber stamp institution, approving and implementing all decisions made by the party. However, the powers and functions of the Supreme Soviet were extended in the late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, including the creation of new state commissions and committees. It gained additional powers when it came to the approval of the Five-Year Plans and the Soviet state budget . [ 39 ] The Supreme Soviet elected a Presidium to wield its power between plenary sessions, [ 40 ] ordinarily held twice a year, and appointed the Supreme Court , [ 41 ] the Procurator General [ 42 ] and the Council of Ministers (known before 1946 as the Council of People's Commissars ), headed by the Chairman (Premier) and managing an enormous bureaucracy responsible for the administration of the economy and society. [ 40 ] State and party structures of the constituent republics largely emulated the structure of the central institutions, although the Russian SFSR, unlike the other constituent republics, for most of its history had no republican branch of the CPSU, being ruled directly by the union-wide party until 1990. Local authorities were organized likewise into party committees , local Soviets and executive committees . While the state system was nominally federal, the party was unitary. [ 43 ]

The state security police (the KGB and its predecessor agencies) played an important role in Soviet politics. It was instrumental in the Stalinist terror , [ 44 ] but after the death of Stalin, the state security police was brought under strict party control. Under Yuri Andropov , KGB chairman in 1967–1982 and General Secretary from 1982 to 1983, the KGB engaged in the suppression of political dissent and maintained an extensive network of informers, reasserting itself as a political actor to some extent independent of the party-state structure, [ 45 ] culminating in the anti-corruption campaign targeting high party officials in the late 1970s and early 1980s. [ 46 ]

Separation of power and reform

The Soviet constitutions , which were promulgated in 1918 , 1924 , 1936 and 1977 , [ 47 ] did not limit state power. No formal separation of powers existed between the Party, Supreme Soviet and Council of Ministers [ 48 ] that represented executive and legislative branches of the government. The system was governed less by statute than by informal conventions, and no settled mechanism of leadership succession existed. Bitter and at times deadly power struggles took place in the Politburo after the deaths of Lenin [ 49 ] and Joseph Stalin , [ 50 ] as well as after Khrushchev's dismissal , [ 51 ] itself due to a coup in both the Politburo and the Central Committee. [ 52 ] All Soviet party leaders before Gorbachev died in office, except Georgy Malenkov [ 53 ] and Khrushchev, both dismissed from the party leadership amid internal struggle within the party. [ 52 ]

An armored personnel carrier surrounded by anti-coup demonstrators in Moscow during the 1991 August Coup

In 1988–1990, facing considerable opposition, Mikhail Gorbachev enacted reforms shifting power away from the highest bodies of the party and making the Supreme Soviet less dependent on them. The Congress of People's Deputies was established, the majority of whose members were directly elected in competitive elections held in March 1989. The Congress now elected the Supreme Soviet, which became a full-time parliament, much stronger than before. For the first time since the 1920s, it refused to rubber stamp proposals from the party and Council of Ministers. [ 54 ] In 1990, Gorbachev introduced and assumed the position of the President of the Soviet Union , concentrated power in his executive office, independent of the party, and subordinated the government, [ 55 ] now renamed the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR , to himself. [ 56 ]

Tensions grew between the union-wide authorities under Gorbachev, reformists led in Russia by Boris Yeltsin and controlling the newly elected Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR , and Communist Party hardliners. On 19–21 August 1991, a group of hardliners staged an abortive coup attempt . Following the failed coup, the State Council of the Soviet Union became the highest organ of state power "in the period of transition". [ 57 ] Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary, only remaining President for the final months of the existence of the USSR. [ 58 ]

Judicial system

The judiciary was not independent of the other branches of government. The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts ( People's Court ) and applied the law as established by the Constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet. The Constitutional Oversight Committee reviewed the constitutionality of laws and acts. The Soviet Union utilized the inquisitorial system of Roman law , where the judge, procurator , and defense attorney collaborate to establish the truth. [ 59 ]

Las divisiones políticas

Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), although the rule of the highly centralized Communist Party made the union merely nominal. [ 29 ] The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR was signed in December 1922 by four founding republics, the RSFSR, Transcaucasian SFSR , Ukrainian SSR and Belorussian SSR . In 1924, during the national delimitation in Central Asia, the Uzbek and Turkmen SSRs were formed from parts of the RSFSR's Turkestan ASSR and two Soviet dependencies, the Khorezm and Bukharan SSR . In 1929, the Tajik SSR was split off from the Uzbek SSR. With the constitution of 1936, the constituents of the Transcaucasian SFSR, namely the Georgian , Armenian and Azerbaijan SSRs , were elevated to union republics, while the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs were split off from the RSFSR. [ 60 ] In August 1940, the Soviet Union formed the Moldavian SSR from parts of the Ukrainian SSR and parts of Bessarabia annexed from Romania . It also annexed the Baltic states as the Estonian , Latvian and Lithuanian SSRs . The Karelo-Finnish SSR was split off from the RSFSR in March 1940 and merged back in 1956. Between July 1956 and September 1991, there were 15 union republics (see map below). [ 61 ]

On 16 November 1988, the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR passed the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration that asserted Estonia's sovereignty and declared the supremacy of Estonian laws over those of the Soviet Union. [ 62 ] In March 1990, the newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR declared independence , followed by the Georgian Supreme Soviet in April 1991. Although the symbolic right of the republics to secede was nominally guaranteed by the constitution and the union treaty, [ 29 ] Soviet authorities at first refused to recognize it. After the August coup attempt, most of the other republics followed suit. The Soviet Union ultimately recognized the secession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on 6 September 1991. The remaining republics were recognized as independent with the Soviet Union's final dissolution in December 1991. [ 63 ]

# República Map of the Union Republics between 1956–1991
1 Flag of Russian SFSR Russian SFSR Republics of the USSR.svg
2 Flag of Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian SSR
3 Flag of Belarusian SSR Belorussian SSR
4 Flag of Uzbekistan SSR Uzbek SSR
5 Flag of Kazakhstan SSR Kazakh SSR
6 Flag of Georgian SSR Georgian SSR
7 Flag of Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan SSR
8 Flag of Lithuanian SSR Lithuanian SSR
9 Flag of Moldovan SSR Moldavian SSR
10 Flag of Latvian SSR Latvian SSR
11 Flag of Kyrgyzstan SSR Kirghiz SSR
12 Flag of Tajikistan SSR Tajik SSR
13 Flag of Armenian SSR Armenian SSR
14 Flag of Turkmenistan SSR Turkmen SSR
15 Flag of Estonian SSR Estonian SSR

Economía

The DneproGES , one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union became the first country to adopt a planned economy , whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and directed by the government. The first Bolshevik experience with a command economy was the policy of War Communism , which involved nationalization of industry, centralized distribution of output, coercive requisition of agricultural production, and attempts to eliminate the circulation of money, as well as private enterprises and free trade . As it had aggravated a severe economic collapse caused by the war, in 1921, Lenin replaced War Communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), legalizing free trade and private ownership of smaller businesses. The economy recovered fairly quickly. [ 64 ]

Following a lengthy debate among the members of Politburo over the course of economic development, by 1928–1929, upon gaining control of the country , Joseph Stalin abandoned the NEP and pushed for full central planning, starting forced collectivization of agriculture and enacting draconian labor legislation. Resources were mobilized for rapid industrialization , which greatly expanded Soviet capacity in heavy industry and capital goods during the 1930s. [ 64 ] Preparation for war was one of the main driving forces behind industrialization, mostly due to distrust of the outside capitalistic world. [ 65 ] As a result, the USSR was transformed from a largely agrarian economy into a great industrial power, leading the way for its emergence as a superpower after World War II . [ 66 ] During the war, the Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation and required extensive reconstruction. [ 67 ]

By the early 1940s, the Soviet economy had become relatively self-sufficient ; for most of the period up until the creation of Comecon , only a very small share of domestic products was traded internationally. [ 68 ] After the creation of the Eastern Bloc , external trade rose rapidly. Still the influence of the world economy on the USSR was limited by fixed domestic prices and a state monopoly on foreign trade . [ 69 ] Grain and sophisticated consumer manufactures became major import articles from around the 1960s. [ 68 ] During the arms race of the Cold War, the Soviet economy was burdened by military expenditures, heavily lobbied for by a powerful bureaucracy dependent on the arms industry. At the same time, the Soviet Union became the largest arms exporter to the Third World . Significant amounts of Soviet resources during the Cold War were allocated in aid to the other socialist states . [ 68 ]

From the 1930s until its collapse in the late 1980s, the way the Soviet economy operated remained essentially unchanged. The economy was formally directed by central planning , carried out by Gosplan and organized in five-year plans . In practice, however, the plans were highly aggregated and provisional, subject to ad hoc intervention by superiors. All key economic decisions were taken by the political leadership. Allocated resources and plan targets were normally denominated in rubles rather than in physical goods. Credit was discouraged, but widespread. Final allocation of output was achieved through relatively decentralized, unplanned contracting. Although in theory prices were legally set from above, in practice the actual prices were often negotiated, and informal horizontal links [ clarification needed ] were widespread. [ 64 ]

Comparison between USSR and US economies (1989)
according to 1990 CIA World Factbook [ 70 ]
URSS EE.UU.
GNP ( PPP adjusted , 1989) US$ 2.6595 trillion US$5.2333 trillion
Population (July 1990) 290,938,469 250,410,000
GNP per capita (PPP adjusted) US$9,211 US$21,082
Labour force (1989) 152,300,000 125,557,000

A number of basic services were state-funded, such as education and healthcare . In the manufacturing sector, heavy industry and defense were assigned higher priority than the production of consumer goods . [ 71 ] Consumer goods, particularly outside large cities, were often in short supply, of poor quality and limited choice. Under command economy, consumers had almost no influence over production, so the changing demands of a population with growing incomes could not be satisfied by supplies at rigidly fixed prices. [ 72 ] A massive unplanned second economy grew up alongside the planned one at low levels, providing some of the goods and services that the planners could not. Legalization of some elements of the decentralized economy was attempted with the reform of 1965 . [ 64 ]

Although statistics of the Soviet economy are notoriously unreliable and its economic growth difficult to estimate precisely, [ 73 ] [ 74 ] by most accounts, the economy continued to expand until the mid 1980s. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet economy experienced comparatively high growth and was catching up to the West. [ 75 ] However, after 1970, the growth, while still positive, steadily declined , much more quickly and consistently than in other countries, despite a rapid increase in the capital stock , (the rate of increase in capital was only surpassed by Japan ). [ 64 ]

Overall, between 1960 and 1989, the growth rate of per capita income in the Soviet Union was slightly above the world average (based on 102 countries). However, given the very high level of investment in physical capital, high percentage of people with a secondary education, and low population increase, the economy should have grown much faster. According to Stanley Fischer and William Easterly , the Soviet growth record was among "the worst in the world". By their calculation, per capita income of Soviet Union in 1989 should have been twice as high as it was, if investment, education and population had their typical effect on growth. The authors attribute this poor performance to low productivity of capital in the Soviet Union. [ 76 ]

In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev tried to reform and revitalize the economy with his program of perestroika . His policies relaxed state control over enterprises, but did not yet allow it to be replaced by market incentives, ultimately resulting in a sharp decline in production output. The economy, already suffering from reduced petroleum export revenues , started to collapse. Prices were still fixed, and property was still largely state-owned until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. [ 64 ] [ 72 ] For most of the period after World War II up to its collapse, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world by GDP ( PPP ), [ 77 ] though in per capita terms the Soviet GDP was behind that of the First World countries. [ 78 ]

Energía

A Soviet stamp depicting the 30th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency

The need for fuel declined in the Soviet Union from the 1970s to the 1980s, [ 79 ] both per ruble of gross social product and per ruble of industrial product. At the start, this decline grew very rapidly, but gradually slowed down between 1970 and 1975. From 1975 and 1980, it grew even slower, [ clarification needed ] only 2.6 percent. [ 80 ] David Wilson, a historian, believed that the gas industry would account for 40 percent of Soviet fuel production by the end of the century. His theory did not come to fruition because of the USSR's collapse. [ 81 ] The USSR, in theory, would have continued to have an economic growth rate of 2–2.5 percent during the 1990s because of Soviet energy fields [ clarification needed ] . [ 82 ] However, the energy sector faced many difficulties, among them the country's high military expenditure and hostile relations with the First World (pre- Gorbachev era ). [ 83 ]

In 1991, the Soviet Union had a pipeline network of 82,000 kilometres (51,000 mi) for crude oil and another 206,500 kilometres (128,300 mi) for natural gas . [ 84 ] Petroleum and petroleum-based products, natural gas, metals, wood, agricultural products, and a variety of manufactured goods, primarily machinery, arms and military equipment, were exported. [ 85 ] In the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Union heavily relied on fossil fuel exports to earn hard currency . [ 68 ] At its peak in 1988, it was the largest producer and second largest exporter of crude oil, surpassed only by Saudi Arabia . [ 86 ]

Science and technology

The Soviet Union placed great emphasis on science and technology within its economy, [ 87 ] however, the most remarkable Soviet successes in technology, such as producing the world's first space satellite , typically were the responsibility of the military. [ 71 ] Lenin believed that the USSR would never overtake the developed world if it remained as technologically backward as it was. Soviet authorities proved their commitment to Lenin's belief by developing massive networks, research and development organizations. By 1989, Soviet scientists were among the world's best-trained specialists in several areas, such as energy physics , selected areas of medicine, mathematics, welding and military technologies. Due to rigid state planning and bureaucracy , the Soviets remained far behind technologically in chemistry, biology, and computers when compared to the First World .

Project Socrates , under the Reagan administration , determined that the Soviet Union addressed the acquisition of science and technology in a manner that was radically different than what the US was using at that time. In the case of the US, economic prioritization was being used for indigenous R&D as the means to acquire science and technology in both the private and public sectors. In contrast, the Soviet Union was offensively and defensively maneuvering in the acquisition and utilization of the worldwide technology, to increase the competitive advantage that they acquired from the technology, while preventing the US from acquiring a competitive advantage. However, in addition, the Soviet Union's technology-based planning was executed in a centralized, government-centric manner that greatly hindered its flexibility. It was this significant lack of flexibility that was exploited by the US to undermine the strength of the Soviet Union and thus foster its reform. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] [ 90 ]

Transport

The Soviet-era flag of Aeroflot

Transport was a key component of the nation's economy . The economic centralisation of the late 1920s and 1930s led to the development of infrastructure on a massive scale, most notably the establishment of Aeroflot , an aviation enterprise . [ 91 ] The country had a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. [ 84 ] However, due to bad maintenance, much of the road, water and Soviet civil aviation transport were outdated and technologically backward compared to the First World. [ 92 ]

Soviet rail transport was the largest and most intensively used in the world; [ 92 ] it was also better developed than most of its Western counterparts. [ 93 ] By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Soviet economists were calling for the construction of more roads to alleviate some of the burden from the railways and to improve the Soviet state budget . [ 94 ] The road network and automobile industry [ 95 ] remained underdeveloped, [ 96 ] and dirt roads were common outside major cities. [ 97 ] Soviet maintenance projects proved unable to take care of even the few roads the country had. By the early to mid-1980s, the Soviet authorities tried to solve the road problem by ordering the construction of new ones. [ 97 ] Meanwhile, the automobile industry was growing at a faster rate than road construction. [ 98 ] The underdeveloped road network led to a growing demand for public transport . [ 99 ]

Despite improvements, several aspects of the transport sector were still riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure, lack of investment, corruption and bad decision-making. Soviet authorities were unable to meet the growing demand for transport infrastructure and services.

The Soviet merchant fleet was one of the largest in the world. [ 84 ]

Demografía

The population of the USSR (red) and the post-Soviet states (blue) from 1961 to 2009.

The first fifty years of the 20th century in tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union were marked by a succession of disasters, each accompanied by large–scale population losses. Excess deaths over the course of World War I and the Russian Civil War (including the postwar famine ) amounted to a combined total of 18 million, [ 100 ] some 10 million in the 1930s, [ 18 ] and more than 26 million in 1941–5. The postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than it would have been if pre-war demographic growth had continued. [ 101 ]

The crude birth rate of the USSR decreased from 44.0 per thousand in 1926 to 18.0 in 1974, largely due to increasing urbanization and the rising average age of marriages. The crude death rate demonstrated a gradual decrease as well – from 23.7 per thousand in 1926 to 8.7 in 1974. In general, the birth rates of the southern republics in Transcaucasia and Central Asia were considerably higher than those in the northern parts of the Soviet Union, and in some cases even increased in the post–World War II period, a phenomenon partly attributed to slower rates of urbanization and traditionally earlier marriages in the southern republics. [ 102 ] Soviet Europe moved towards sub-replacement fertility , while Soviet Central Asia continued to exhibit population growth well above replacement-level fertility. [ 103 ]

The late 1960s and the 1970s witnessed a reversal of the declining trajectory of the rate of mortality in the USSR, and was especially notable among men of working age, but was also prevalent in Russia and other predominantly Slavic areas of the country. [ 104 ] An analysis of the official data from the late 1980s showed that after worsening in the late-1970s and the early 1980s, adult mortality began to improve again. [ 105 ] The infant mortality rate increased from 24.7 in 1970 to 27.9 in 1974. Some researchers regarded the rise as largely real, a consequence of worsening health conditions and services. [ 106 ] The rises in both adult and infant mortality were not explained or defended by Soviet officials, and the Soviet government simply stopped publishing all mortality statistics for ten years. Soviet demographers and health specialists remained silent about the mortality increases until the late-1980s, when the publication of mortality data resumed and researchers could delve into the real causes. [ 107 ]

Educación

Soviet pupils on a visit to Milovice , Czechoslovakia in 1985.

Prior to 1917, in the Russian Empire , education was not free, and was therefore either inaccessible or barely accessible for many children from lower-class working and peasant families. Estimates from 1917 recorded that 75–85 percent of the Russian population was illiterate .

Anatoly Lunacharsky became the first People's Commissariat for Education of Soviet Russia. At the beginning, the Soviet authorities placed great emphasis on the elimination of illiteracy. People who were literate were automatically hired as teachers. For a short period, quality was sacrificed for quantity. By 1940, Joseph Stalin could announce that illiteracy had been eliminated. In the aftermath of the Great Patriotic War, the country's educational system expanded dramatically. This expansion had a tremendous effect. In the 1960s, nearly all Soviet children had access to education, the only exception being those living in remote areas. Nikita Khrushchev tried to make education more accessible, making it clear to children that education was closely linked to the needs of society. Education also became important in creating the New Soviet Man . [ 108 ]

Access to higher education was restricted, however; only 20 percent of all applicants were accepted. The rest entered the labor market or learned a skill at a vocational technical school or technicum . Students from families of dubious political reliability were barred from higher education. [ 109 ] The Brezhnev administration introduced a rule that required all university applicants to present a reference from the local Komsomol party secretary. [ 110 ] According to statistics from 1986, the number of students per 10,000 population was 181 for the USSR, compared to 517 for the US. [ 111 ]

Ethnic groups

1974 USSR geographic location of ethnicities

The Soviet Union was a very ethnically diverse country, with more than 100 distinct ethnic groups. The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991. According to a 1990 estimate, the majority were Russians (50.78%), followed by Ukrainians (15.45%) and Uzbeks (5.84%). [ 112 ]

All citizens of the USSR had their own ethnic affiliation. The ethnicity of a person was chosen at the age of sixteen [ 113 ] by the child's parents. If the parents did not agree, the child was automatically assigned the ethnicity of the mother. Partly due to Soviet policies, some of the smaller minority ethnic groups were considered part of larger ones, such as the Mingrelians of the Georgian SSR , who were classified with the linguistically related Georgians . [ 114 ] Some ethnic groups voluntarily assimilated, while others were brought in by force. Russians, Belarusians , and Ukrainians shared close cultural ties, while other groups did not. With multiple nationalities living in the same territory, ethnic antagonisms developed over the years. [ 115 ]

Salud

In 1917, before the Bolshevik uprising, health conditions were significantly behind the developed countries. As Lenin later noted, "Either the lice will defeat socialism, or socialism will defeat the lice". [ 116 ] The Soviet principle of health care was conceived by the People's Commissariat for Health in 1918. Health care was to be controlled by the state and would be provided to its citizens free of charge. Article 42 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution gave all citizens the right to health protection and free access to any health institutions in the USSR. However, the Soviet Union's health care system was not able to fulfill all the needs of its people. [ 117 ] Before Leonid Brezhnev rose to power, Soviet socialised medicine was held in high esteem by many foreign specialists. This changed however, from Brezhnev's accession and Mikhail Gorbachev 's tenure as leader, the Soviet health care system was heavily criticised for many basic faults, such as the quality of service and the unevenness in its provision. [ 118 ] Minister of Health Yevgeniy Chazov , during the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , while highlighting such Soviet success as having the most doctors and hospitals in the world, recognised the system's deficiencies and felt that billions of Soviet rubles were squandered. [ 119 ]

After the communist takeover, the life expectancy for all age groups went up. This statistic was used by authorities to "prove" that the socialist system was superior to the capitalist system . These improvements continued into the 1960s, when the life expectancy in the Soviet Union surpassed that of the United States . It remained fairly stable during most years, although in the 1970s, it went down slightly, probably because of alcohol abuse . Most western sources put the blame on growing alcohol abuse and poor health care; this theory was also implicitly accepted by the Soviet authorities. At the same time, infant mortality began to rise. After 1974, the government stopped publishing statistics on this. This trend can be partly explained by the number of pregnancies rising drastically in the Asian part of the country where infant mortality was highest, while declining markedly in the more developed European part of the Soviet Union. [ 120 ]

Lengua

The Soviet government headed by Vladimir Lenin gave small language groups their own writing systems. [ 121 ] The development of these writing systems was very successful, even though some flaws were detected. During the later days of the USSR, countries with the same multilingual situation implemented similar policies. A serious problem when creating these writing systems was that the languages differed dialectally greatly from each other. [ 122 ] When a language had been given a writing system and appeared in a notable publication, that language would attain "official language" status. There were many minority languages which never received their own writing system, therefore their speakers were forced to have a second language . [ 123 ] There are examples where the Soviet government retreated from this policy, most notable under Stalin's regime, where education was discontinued in languages which were not widespread enough. These languages were then assimilated into another language, mostly Russian . [ 124 ] During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), some minority languages were banned, and their speakers accused of collaborating with the enemy. [ 125 ]

As the most widely-spoken of the Soviet Union's many languages, Russian de facto functioned as an official language as the "language of interethnic communication" ( Russian : ???? ???????????????? ??????? ), but only assumed the de jure status of the official national language in 1990. [ 126 ]

Religión

Christianity and Islam had the greatest number of adherents among the Soviet state's religious citizens. [ 127 ] Eastern Christianity predominated among Christians, with Russia's traditional Russian Orthodox Church being the Soviet Union's largest Christian denomination . About 90 percent of the Soviet Union's Muslims were Sunnis , with Shiites concentrated in the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic . [ 127 ] Smaller groups included Roman Catholics , Jews , Buddhists , and a variety of Protestant sects. [ 127 ]

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its 1931 demolition.

Religious influence had been strong in the Russian Empire. The Russian Orthodox Church enjoyed a privileged status as the church of the monarchy and took part in carrying out official state functions. [ 128 ] The immediate period following the establishment of the Soviet state included a struggle against the Orthodox Church, which the revolutionaries considered an ally of the former ruling classes . [ 129 ]

In Soviet law, the "freedom to hold religious services" was constitutionally guaranteed, although the ruling Communist Party regarded religion as incompatible with the Marxist spirit of scientific materialism . [ 129 ] In practice, the Soviet system subscribed to a narrow interpretation of this right, and in fact utilized a range of official measures to discourage religion and curb the activities of religious groups. [ 129 ]

The 1918 Council of People's Commissars decree establishing the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) as a secular state also decreed that "the teaching of religion in all [places] where subjects of general instruction are taught, is forbidden. Citizens may teach and may be taught religion privately." [ 130 ] Among further restrictions, those adopted in 1929, a half-decade into Stalin's rule, included express prohibitions on a range of church activities, including meetings for organized Bible study . [ 129 ] Both Christian and non-Christian establishments were shut down by the thousands in the 1920s and 1930s. By 1940, as many as 90 percent of the churches , synagogues , and mosques that had been operating in 1917 were closed. [ 131 ]

Convinced that religious anti-Sovietism had become a thing of the past, the Stalin regime began shifting to a more moderate religion policy in the late 1930s. [ 132 ] Soviet religious establishments overwhelmingly rallied to support the war effort during the Soviet war with Nazi Germany . Amid other accommodations to religious faith, churches were reopened, Radio Moscow began broadcasting a religious hour, and a historic meeting between Stalin and Orthodox Church leader Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow was held in 1943. [ 132 ] The general tendency of this period was an increase in religious activity among believers of all faiths. [ 133 ]

The Soviet establishment again clashed with the churches under General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev 's leadership in 1958 – 1964, a period when atheism was emphasized in the educational curriculum, and numerous state publications promoted atheistic views. [ 132 ] During this period, the number of churches fell from 20,000 to 10,000 from 1959 to 1965, and the number of synagogues dropped from 500 to 97. [ 134 ] The number of working mosques also declined, falling from 1,500 to 500 within a decade. [ 134 ]

Religious institutions remained monitored by the Soviet government, but churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques were all given more leeway in the Brezhnev era . [ 135 ] Official relations between the Orthodox Church and the Soviet government again warmed to the point that the Brezhnev government twice honored Orthodox Patriarch Alexey II with Soviet decorations , including the Order of the Red Banner of Labor . [ 132 ] A poll conducted by Soviet authorities in 1982 recorded 20 percent of the Soviet population as "active religious believers." [ 136 ]

Culture

The culture of the Soviet Union passed through several stages during the USSR's 70-year existence. During the first eleven years following the Revolution (1918–1929), there was relative freedom and artists experimented with several different styles in an effort to find a distinctive Soviet style of art. Lenin wanted art to be accessible to the Russian people. On the other hand, hundreds of intellectuals, writers, and artists were exiled or executed, and their work banned, for example Nikolay Gumilev (shot for conspiring against the Bolshevik regime) and Yevgeny Zamyatin (banned). [ 137 ]

The government encouraged a variety of trends. In art and literature, numerous schools, some traditional and others radically experimental, proliferated. Communist writers Maksim Gorky and Vladimir Mayakovsky were active during this time. Film, as a means of influencing a largely illiterate society, received encouragement from the state; much of director Sergei Eisenstein 's best work dates from this period.

Later, during Stalin's rule, Soviet culture was characterised by the rise and domination of the government-imposed style of socialist realism , with all other trends being severely repressed, with rare exceptions, for example Mikhail Bulgakov 's works. Many writers were imprisoned and killed. [ 138 ]

Following the Khrushchev Thaw of the late 1950s and early 1960s, censorship was diminished. Greater experimentation in art forms became permissible once again, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced. The regime loosened its emphasis on socialist realism; thus, for instance, many protagonists of the novels of author Yury Trifonov concerned themselves with problems of daily life rather than with building socialism. An underground dissident literature, known as samizdat , developed during this late period. In architecture the Khrushchev era mostly focused on functional design as opposed to the highly decorated style of Stalin's epoch.

In the second half of the 1980s, Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost significantly expanded freedom of expression in the media and press. [ 139 ]

Véase también


Notas

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  137. ^ 'On the other hand...' See the index of Stalin and His Hangmen by Donald Rayfield, 2004, Random House
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  139. ^ "Gorbachev, Mikhail." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2 October 2007 < http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9037405 >. "Under his new policy of glasnost ("openness"), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government."

Bibliography

Para leer más

Encuestas
  • A Country Study: Soviet Union (Former) . Library of Congress Country Studies , 1991.
  • Brown, Archie, et al., eds.: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press , 1982).
  • Gilbert, Martin: The Routledge Atlas of Russian History (London: Routledge, 2002).
  • Goldman, Minton: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986).
  • Grant, Ted: Russia, from Revolution to Counter-Revolution , London, Well Red Publications,1997
  • Howe, G. Melvyn: The Soviet Union: A Geographical Survey 2nd. edn. (Estover, UK: MacDonald and Evans, 1983).
  • Pipes, Richard. Communism: A History (2003), by a leading conservative scholar
Lenin and Leninism
  • Clark, Ronald W. Lenin (1988). 570 pp.
  • Debo, Richard K. Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918–1921 (1992).
  • Marples, David R. Lenin's Revolution: Russia, 1917–1921 (2000) 156pp. short survey
  • Pipes, Richard. A Concise History of the Russian Revolution (1996) excerpt and text search , by a leading conservative
  • Pipes, Richard. Russia under the Bolshevik Regime. (1994). 608 pp.
  • Service, Robert. Lenin: A Biography (2002), 561pp; standard scholarly biography; a short version of his 3 vol detailed biography
  • Volkogonov, Dmitri. Lenin: Life and Legacy (1994). 600 pp.
Stalin and Stalinism
  • Daniels, RV, ed. The Stalin Revolution (1965)
  • Davies, Sarah, and James Harris, eds. Stalin: A New History, (2006), 310pp, 14 specialized essays by scholars excerpt and text search
  • De Jonge, Alex. Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union (1986)
  • Fitzpatrick, Sheila, ed. Stalinism: New Directions, (1999), 396pp excerpts from many scholars on the impact of Stalinism on the people (little on Stalin himself) online edition
  • Hoffmann, David L. ed. Stalinism: The Essential Readings, (2002) essays by 12 scholars
  • Laqueur, Walter. Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations (1990)
  • Kershaw, Ian, and Moshe Lewin. Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Lee, Stephen J. Stalin and the Soviet Union (1999) online edition
  • Lewis, Jonathan. Stalin: A Time for Judgement (1990)
  • McNeal, Robert H. Stalin: Man and Ruler (1988)
  • Martens, Ludo. Another view of Stalin (1994), a highly favorable view from a Maoist historian
  • Service, Robert. Stalin: A Biography (2004), along with Tucker the standard biography
  • Trotsky, Leon. Stalin: An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence, (1967), an interpretation by Stalin's worst enemy
  • Tucker, Robert C. Stalin as Revolutionary, 1879–1929 (1973); Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1929–1941. (1990) online edition with Service, a standard biography; online at ACLS e-books
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
  • Bellamy, Chris. Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War (2008), 880pp excerpt and text search
  • Broekmeyer, Marius. Stalin, the Russians, and Their War, 1941–1945. 2004. 315 pp.
  • Overy, Richard. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945 (1998) excerpt and text search
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953 (2006).
  • Seaton, Albert. Stalin as Military Commander, (1998) online edition
Cold war
  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century (1989)
  • Edmonds, Robin. Soviet Foreign Policy: The Brezhnev Years (1983)
  • Goncharov, Sergei, John Lewis and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao and the Korean War (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Gorlizki, Yoram, and Oleg Khlevniuk. Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945–1953 (2004) online edition
  • Holloway, David. Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939–1956 (1996) excerpt and text search
  • Mastny, Vojtech . Russia's Road to the Cold War: Diplomacy, Warfare, and the Politics of Communism, 1941–1945 (1979)
  • Mastny, Vojtech . The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (1998) excerpt and text search ; online complete edition
  • Nation, R. Craig. Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917–1991 (1992)
  • Sivachev, Nikolai and Nikolai Yakolev, Russia and the United States (1979), by Soviet historians
  • Taubman, William. Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (2004), Pulitzer Prize; excerpt and text search
  • Ulam, Adam B. Expansion and Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917–1973 , 2nd ed. (1974)
  • Zubok, Vladislav M. Inside the Kremlin's Cold War (1996) 20% excerpt and online search
  • Zubok, Vladislav M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007)
Colapso
  • Beschloss, Michael, and Strobe Talbott. At the Highest Levels:The Inside Story of the End of the Cold War (1993)
  • Bialer, Seweryn and Michael Mandelbaum, eds. Gorbachev's Russia and American Foreign Policy (1988).
  • Garthoff, Raymond. The Great Transition: American–Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (1994), detailed narrative
  • Grachev, AS Gorbachev's Gamble: Soviet Foreign Policy and the End of the Cold War (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Hogan, Michael ed. The End of the Cold War. Its Meaning and Implications (1992) articles from Diplomatic History
  • Kotkin, Stephen. Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970–2000 (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Matlock, Jack. Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union (1995)
  • Pons, S., Romero, F., Reinterpreting the End of the Cold War: Issues, Interpretations, Periodizations , (2005) ISBN 978–0–7146–5695–X
  • Remnick, David. Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire , (1994), ISBN 978–0–679–75125–4
Specialty studies
  • Armstrong, John A. The Politics of Totalitarianism: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1934 to the Present. New York: Random House, 1961.
  • Katz, Zev, ed.: Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities (New York: Free Press, 1975).
  • Moore, Jr., Barrington. Soviet politics: the dilemma of power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950.
  • Dmitry Orlov , Reinventing Collapse , New Society Books, 2008, ISBN 978–0–86571–606–3
  • Rizzi, Bruno: "The Bureaucratization of the World : The First English edition of the Underground Marxist Classic That Analyzed Class Exploitation in the USSR", New York, NY : Free Press, 1985.
  • Schapiro, Leonard B. The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State, First Phase 1917–1922. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955, 1966.

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