Lenguas romances

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Romance
Geográfico
distribución:
Originalmente el sur de Europa y partes del norte de África , ahora también en América Latina , Canadá , partes de Líbano y gran parte de África Occidental
Clasificación lingüística : Indoeuropeo
Subdivisiones:
Las lenguas románicas-Mundial-map.png
Las lenguas romances en el mundo

Indoeuropeas temas

Albania · Armenia · Báltico
Celtic · germánica · Helénica
Indo-Iraní ( indo-aria , Irán )
Cursiva · eslava  

extinción: Anatolia · Paleo-Balcanes ( Dacia ,
Frigio , tracio ) · tocario

Vocabulario · Fonología · Las leyes de sonido · Ablaut · Raíz · Sustantivo · Verbo
 
Europa: bálticos · eslavos · Los albaneses · Las cursivas · Celtas · pueblos germánicos · Griegos · Los Paleo-Balcanes ( ilirios · tracios · dacios ) ·

Asia: Anatolia ( hititas , los luvitas ) · Los armenios · Los indo-iraníes ( los iraníes · Indo-arios ) · Los tocarios  

Patria · Sociedad · Religión
 
Abashevo la cultura · la cultura Afanasevo · cultura de Andronovo · cultura de Baden · Cultura del cubilete · la cultura Catacumba · la cultura de Cernavod? · la cultura Chasséen · la cultura Chernoles · cable cultura de la cerámica · Cucuteni-Trypillian la cultura · Dnieper-Donets la cultura · Gumelni?a-Karanovo la cultura · Gushi la cultura · Karasuk la cultura · Kemi Oba la cultura · Khvalynsk la cultura · Kura-Araxes la cultura · Lusatian la cultura · Kurgan · Koban · Kura-Araxes · Shulaveri-Shomu · Colchian · Trialeti · Maykop la cultura · Leyla-Tepe la cultura · Jar-Entierro · Jodzhali-Gadabay · Medio Dnieper la cultura · la cultura Narva · la cultura Novotitorovka · la cultura Poltavka · Potapovka la cultura · Samara cultura · la cultura Seroglazovo · Sredny Stog la cultura · la cultura Srubna · culturas Terramaras · la cultura Usatovo · Vu?edol la cultura · Yamna la cultura
 

Las lenguas romances (a veces conocido como lenguas románicas, lenguas latinas o lenguas neolatinas) son una rama de la familia lingüística indoeuropea , más precisamente de la subfamilia de lenguas itálicas , que comprende todas las lenguas que descienden del latín vulgar , el idioma de la antigua Roma . [1]

Hay más de 800 millones de hablantes nativos de todo el mundo, principalmente en Europa y las Américas , así como muchas regiones más pequeños repartidos por todo el mundo. [1] Debido a la dificultad extrema y una metodología diferentes para distinguir entre el lenguaje, la variedad, y el dialecto, que Es imposible contar el número de lenguas románicas ahora en existencia, pero el número de serie coloca el número de lenguas románicas que viven en casi 25 años. De hecho, el número puede ser un poco más grande, y muchos más existido anteriormente ( SIL Ethnologue enumera 47 lenguas románicas).

Hoy en día los seis que más se hablan lenguas románicas estandarizados son españolas (c. 500 millones de nativos), Portugués (c. 230 millones lengua materna), francés (c. 275 millones nativos y no nativos (sobre todo el África francófona)), Italia (c. 62 millones de nativos), Rumania (C. 24 millones de nativos) y catalán (C. 12 millones de nativos). [1] Muchos de estos idiomas tienen un gran número de hablantes no nativos, lo que es especialmente el caso de francés, de uso generalizado a lo largo de África Occidental como lingua franca .

Entre las otras lenguas romances numerosos

Contenido

[ editar ] Orígenes

Las lenguas romances y dialectos dentro de la cursiva rama de lenguas indo-europeas

Las lenguas romances son la continuación de latín vulgar , el popular sociolecto del latín hablado por los soldados , colonos y comerciantes del Imperio Romano, a diferencia de la forma clásica de la lengua hablada por las clases altas romanas, la forma en que el lenguaje en general escrito. Entre 350 aC y 150 dC, la expansión del Imperio , junto con sus políticas administrativas y educativas, hizo América en la lengua dominante nativa en la Europa occidental continental. América también ejercieron una fuerte influencia en el sureste de Inglaterra , la provincia romana de África , los Balcanes y el norte de la Línea Jire?ek .

Durante la caída del Imperio, y después de su fragmentación y el colapso en el siglo quinto, las variedades de América comenzó a divergir, dentro de cada área local a un ritmo acelerado, y eventualmente se convirtió en un continuo de tipologías diferentes reconocible. Los imperios de ultramar establecidas por Portugal , España y Francia a partir del siglo 15o difundir sus lenguas a los otros continentes, hasta tal punto que cerca de dos tercios de todos los hablantes de romance viven hoy fuera de Europa.

A pesar de otros factores (por ejemplo, substrato de lenguas prerromanas, especialmente lenguas celtas continentales , y superestrato de la tarde germánicas o eslavas invasiones), la fonología , la morfología y el léxico de todas las lenguas romances son abrumadoramente evolucionado las formas de latín vulgar. Sin embargo, hay algunas diferencias notables entre las lenguas romances actuales y su antecesor romano. Con sólo una o dos excepciones, las lenguas romances han perdido la decadencia del sistema de América y, en consecuencia, tienen SVO estructura de la oración y hacer un amplio uso de las preposiciones .

[ editar ] Nombre

El término " Romance "proviene del latín vulgar romanice adverbio, derivado de Romanicus: por ejemplo, en la expresión romanice loqui," hablar en Roma "(es decir, el latín vulgar ), en contraste con loqui latine ", para hablar en América "( del latín medieval , la conservadora versión del lenguaje utilizado en la escritura y contextos formales o como lingua franca ), y con barbarice loqui, "hablar en Bárbaro "(los idiomas no latinos de los pueblos que viven fuera del Imperio Romano ). [2] A partir de este adverbio se originó el romance sustantivo, que se aplicaba inicialmente a cualquier cosa escrita romanice, o "en la lengua vernácula romana".

El romance palabra con el sentido moderno de la novela romántica o de historia de amor tiene el mismo origen. En la literatura medieval de la Europa occidental, la escritura seria era por lo general en América, mientras que los cuentos populares, a menudo se centran en el amor, fueron compuestos en lengua vernácula, y llegó a ser llamado " romances ".

[ editar ] Ejemplos

Similitudes léxicas y gramaticales entre las lenguas romances, y entre América y cada uno de ellos, son evidentes a partir de los siguientes ejemplos que tienen el mismo significado:

Inglés: Siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.

Latino (Illa) claudit sempre fenestram antequam Cenat.
Aragonés (Ella) Zarra Siempre una finestra de Antes CENAR.
Arrumana (Ea / NASA) încljidi / nkidi totna firida Ninti di tsinâ.
Asturiano (Ella) pieslla Siempre la feniestra / Ventana enantes de CENAR.
Bergamasque (LE) La Sera semper para La Finestra prima de Sena.
Boloñesa (LI) La Sera sänper la fnèstra prémma dsnèr ed.
Catalán (Ella) tanca sempre abans de La Finestra sopar.
Corso Edda chjudi sempri u balconu prima di cina.
Emiliana (LE) La Sera sèmpar Su La fnèstra facie ad SNAR.
Extremadura (Ella) afecha siempri La Ventana antis de CENAL.
Franco-provenzal (Le) Sarre toltin / tojor la fenétra Avan de goutâ / dinar / sopar.
Francés Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre vanguardia de dîner / Souper.
Friulane (EJ) e siere simpri il barcon principio di Cena.
Gallego (ELA) pecha / fecha sempre un Fiestra / xanela apuestas iniciales de CEAR.
Italiano (Ella / Lei) CHIUDE semper La Finestra di prima Cenare.
Judeo-española Eya Serra syempre La Ventana de los antes Senar.
Laden (Era) stlüj dagnora La Finestra impröma de ceno. (Badiot) (IEAL) stluj para l Viere dan Maie da cëina (gherdëina)
Leonés (Eilla) pecha Siempre La Ventana primeiru de Cenare.
Liguria (Le) Saera sempre u balcun PRIMMA de cena.
Milanés (Le) La Sara sempre Su La finestra prima de DISNA.
Mirandés (Eilha) Cerra Siempre la bentana / jinela Atrás de Jantar.
Mozárabe Ella cloudet sempre la fainestra Abante da Cenare. (Reconstruido)
Napolitano "Un PRIMMA Fenesta 'Essa nzerra Sempé e magna.
Normando Lli barra tréjous la crouésie devaunt de daîner.
Occitano (ELA) Barra sempre / totjorn la fenestra abans de sopar.
Picard Ale frunme tojours creusèe l 'édvint souper ed.
Piamontés Chila una sara semper la fnestra dnans Ed fé sin-a/dnans Ed seno.
Portugués Ela sempre date una janela apuestas iniciales de Jantar.
Rumano Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de una cina.
Romanche Ella Clauda / Serra adina la fanestra avant ch'ella tschainia.
Sardo E Issa Serrat sempre SA bentana innantis 'chenare.
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni PRIMMA di zina.
Siciliano Idda chiudi sempri La Finestra prima i manciari.
Español (Ella) de Siempre Cierra la Ventana de Antes CENAR.
Umbría Essa chjude semper La Finestra prima de cena ".
Veneciano Ela La Sara / sueros semper La fenestra vanti de XENAR / disnar.
Valonia Ele sere Todi li finiesse divant di Soper.

Algunas de la divergencia léxica de arriba viene de cambio semántico : diferentes idiomas romances utilizar la misma raíz con significado diferente. Portugués, por ejemplo, tiene la palabra Fresta y español fenestra / finiestra (que es un cognado del francés fenêtre, finestra italiana, rumana fereastra y así sucesivamente, del latín fenestra "ventana"), sin embargo, ahora significa "tragaluz" y " rendija "en lugar de" ventana ". Los españoles y portugueses términos defenestrar y defenestración / defenestração que significa "tirar por la ventana" o "defenestrar, defenestración ", y fenestrado", repleto de ventanas ", también tienen la misma raíz (pero son posteriores derivaciones del latín).

Del mismo modo, el portugués también tiene la CEAR palabra, un cognado de la lengua italiana y Cenare CENAR español, pero lo utiliza en el sentido de "tener una cena tardía" en la mayoría de las variedades, mientras que la palabra preferida para "comer" es en realidad Jantar (relacionada con Yantar de arcaica española "para comer") debido a los cambios semánticos en el siglo 19. Galicia tiene tanto Fiestra (de f?estra medieval que es el origen último de la norma portuguesa Fresta) y el uso menos frecuente Venta y xanela.

Como alternativa a la lei (originalmente la forma del acusativo), el italiano tiene el pronombre Ella, un cognado de las otras palabras de "ella", pero casi nunca se utiliza en el discurso.

Española, asturiana y leonesa de Ventana y el mirandés y bentana Cerdeña provienen de América Ventus "viento" (cf. ventana de Inglés, etimológicamente "el ojo del viento"), y janela portugués, gallego xanela, mirandés jinela de América * ianuella "pequeña apertura", un derivado de ianua de "puerta".

Cerdeña balcone (alternativa para bentana) viene de la vieja Italia y es similar a otras lenguas romances como el francés balcón (de balcone italiano), Balcão portugués, rumano balcon, balcón español, el catalán y el Balcó de Córcega Balconi (alternativa para purtellu).

[ editar ] Historia

[ editar ] El latín vulgar

Hay una falta de evidencia documental sobre el latín vulgar para los fines de una investigación exhaustiva, y la literatura es a menudo difícil de interpretar o generalizar sobre. Muchos de sus hablantes eran soldados, esclavos, los pueblos desplazados y reasentados forzosos, más probabilidades de ser nativos de las tierras conquistadas que los nativos de Roma.

Se cree que el latín vulgar ya tenía la mayoría de las características que son compartidas por todas las lenguas románicas, que los distinguen de latín clásico, tales como la pérdida casi completa de la América sistema de casos y su sustitución por las preposiciones , la pérdida del género neutro , inflexiones comparativos ; la sustitución de algunos verbos paradigmas de innovaciones (por ejemplo, la síntesis futura dio paso a un principio analítico estrategia ahora por lo general formado por + infinitivo evolucionado las formas actuales indicativos de 'tener'), el uso de los artículos , y las etapas iniciales de la palatalización de las consonantes oclusivas / k /, / g / y / t /. Algunas lenguas modernas, tales como Finlandia , tienen diferencias similares, muy fuerte, entre el formato impreso y hablado.

Para algunos estudiosos, esto sugiere que la forma del latín vulgar que se desarrolló en las lenguas romances fue de alrededor durante el tiempo del Imperio Romano (desde el final del siglo 1 aC), y se hablaba junto con el latín escrito clásico, que estaba reservada para oficiales y formal ocasiones. Otros estudiosos sostienen que las diferencias son más bien visto como indicativo de las diferencias sociolingüísticas y registrar normalmente se encuentran en cualquier idioma.

[ editar ] Caída del Imperio Romano de Occidente

Durante la política de reducción del Imperio Romano de Occidente en el siglo V, hubo grandes migraciones en el imperio, y el mundo de habla latina se fragmentó en varios estados independientes. Europa Central y los Balcanes fueron ocupados por los germanos y eslavos tribus, así como por los hunos , que aislaron a los valacos del resto de la Europa latina .

Pareja británica y el Romance de África , las formas de latín vulgar se utilizan en el sureste de Gran Bretaña y la provincia romana de África , donde se había hablado por gran parte de la población urbana, desapareció en la Edad Media. Sin embargo, las tribus germánicas que habían penetrado en Italia , la Galia y la Hispania finalmente adoptada América y los restos de la cultura romana , por lo que el latín siguió siendo la lengua dominante allí.

[ editar ] de incubación latente

Entre los siglos V y X, los dialectos del latín vulgar hablado se separaron en varias partes de sus dominios, llegando a ser lenguas distintas [ cita requerida ]. Esta evolución no está bien documentado, porque el lenguaje literario , el latín medieval , se mantuvo cerca de la edad clásica latina.

[ editar ] El reconocimiento de las lenguas vernáculas

Entre los siglos 10 y 13, algunos locales de lenguas vernáculas desarrollado una forma escrita y comenzó a suplantar a América en muchas de sus funciones. En algunos países, como Portugal , esta transición se aceleró por la fuerza de la ley, mientras que en otros, como Italia , muchos poetas y escritores prominentes utiliza la lengua vernácula por su propia voluntad - algunos de los más famosos en Italia como Giacomo da Lentini y Dante Alighieri .

[ editar ] La uniformidad y la normalización

La invención de la imprenta parece ralentizado la evolución de las lenguas romances del siglo 16 en [ cita requerida ], y trajo una tendencia hacia una mayor uniformidad de los lenguajes estándar dentro de los límites políticos, a expensas de las otras lenguas romances y dialectos menos favorecidos políticamente . En Francia, por ejemplo, el dialecto hablado en la región de París se extendió gradualmente a todo el país, y el occitano del sur perdieron terreno.

[ editar ] Estado Moderno

Lenguas románicas, 20th century
Número de hablantes nativos de cada lengua romance, como fracciones del total de 690 millones

La lengua romance más hablada de forma nativa hoy es español ( castellano ), seguido por portugueses , franceses , italianos , rumanos , y el catalán , todos los cuales son lenguas oficiales en al menos un país. A pocos otros idiomas cuentan con estatuto oficial en el ámbito regional o limitado de otro modo, por ejemplo friulano , sardo y el franco-provenzal en Italia, el romanche en Suiza, y de Galicia en España.

Francés, italiano, portugués, español y rumano son también lenguas oficiales de la Unión Europea . Español, portugués, francés, italiano, rumano, y el catalán son las lenguas oficiales de la Unión Latina , y el francés y el español son dos de los seis idiomas oficiales de las Naciones Unidas .

Fuera de Europa, francés , portugués y español se habla y disfruta de un estatus oficial en varios países que surgieron de sus respectivos imperios coloniales . El francés es uno de los idiomas oficiales de Canadá , muchos países de África y algunas islas del Índico y el Océano Pacífico . También es el único idioma oficial de Quebec .

El español es una lengua oficial de México , gran parte de América del Sur , América Central , las islas de las Antillas Mayores en el Caribe (excepto en Haití, donde las lenguas oficiales son el francés y el creole de Haití , un francés criollo , y Jamaica , donde Inglés y Jamaica patois se hablan.), y es el idioma oficial de Guinea Ecuatorial en África y es la lengua romance más hablada en el mundo.

El portugués es el idioma oficial de Brasil (llegando a casi 190 millones de dólares, que es la lengua hablada por la mitad de la población de América del Sur que reside en Brasil), cinco países africanos ( Angola , Cabo Verde , Guiné-Bissau , Mozambique y Santo Tomé y Príncipe ), y de Timor Oriental y Macao en Asia y es la segunda lengua romance más hablada.

A pesar de Italia también tenía algunas posesiones coloniales, su idioma oficial no se quedó después de la final de la dominación colonial, que resulta en Italia se habla sólo una lengua minoritaria o secundaria de las comunidades de inmigrantes en Norte , América del Sur , Australia y los países africanos, como Libia , Eritrea y Somalia . Rumania no estableció un imperio colonial, pero el idioma es hablado como lengua materna en la República de Moldova , al tiempo que también se extendió a otros países de toda Europa, especialmente los países romances (principalmente Italia y España ), y en otros lugares como Israel , donde es un idioma nativo y el 5% de la población, [3] y por muchos más como un idioma secundario, esto es debido a la gran cantidad de nacido en Rumania Judios que se mudó a Israel después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial II . [4]

Los oradores total de nativos de las lenguas romances se dividen de la siguiente manera (con su clasificación dentro de las lenguas del mundo entre paréntesis): [5] [6]

El catalán es inusual, ya que no es el idioma principal de cualquier Estado-nación que no sea Andorra , pero sin embargo ha sido capaz de competir e incluso ganar altavoces a expensas de la lengua dominante de su país primaria (español), de hecho, el catalán es probablemente la única lengua de la minoría europea cuya supervivencia no está bajo amenaza.

Esto se debe a una fuerte creencia de que el catalán es un componente crítico de la identidad étnica de los catalanes . Esto les ha permitido resistir a la asimilación insta a que se encuentran en el proceso de destrucción de la mayoría de las restantes lenguas minoritarias comunidades, incluso los que tienen un fuerte apoyo gubernamental (por ejemplo, lengua irlandesa altavoces).

Las lenguas romances que quedan sobreviven como lenguas que se hablan sobre todo de contacto informal. Los gobiernos nacionales han visto históricamente la diversidad lingüística como una carga económica, administrativa o militar, así como una fuente potencial de separatistas movimientos, por lo que, en general, han luchado para eliminar, de manera extensiva la promoción del uso de la lengua oficial, restringiendo el uso de el "otro" las lenguas en los medios de comunicación, caracterizándolos como meros "dialectos", o incluso perseguirlos. Como resultado, todas estas lenguas se consideran en peligro de extinción en diversos grados según la UNESCO, el Libro Rojo de las Lenguas en Peligro de Extinción , que van desde "vulnerable" (por ejemplo, Sicilia y Venecia ) en "grave peligro" (la mayoría de los occitanos variedades).

A finales del siglo 20 y principios del 21, el aumento de la sensibilidad a los derechos de las minorías han permitido que algunas de estas lenguas para comenzar a recuperar su prestigio y los derechos perdidos. Sin embargo, no está claro si estos cambios políticos será suficiente para revertir el declive de las lenguas románicas minoritarias.

[ editar ] Clasificación y lenguas relacionadas

Romance-lg-clasificación-es.png
Oriental y las zonas occidentales Romance partido por el de La Spezia-Rimini Line

La clasificación de las lenguas romances es de por sí difícil, ya que la mayor parte del área lingüística puede considerarse como un continuum dialectal , y en algunos casos sesgos políticos pueden entrar en juego. Sin embargo, de acuerdo con SIL cuenta, 47 idiomas y dialectos romances se hablan en Europa . Junto con América (que no está incluido entre las lenguas romances) y algunas lenguas extintas de la Italia antigua, que constituyen la rama itálica de la familia indoeuropea .

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Latino
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
El latín clásico
 
 
 
El latín vulgar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continental Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Cerdeña idiomas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Italo-Western Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Este Romance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Romance Occidental
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-italiana
 
Los Balcanes Romance
 
Dálmata
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibero-Romance
 
 
 
 
 
Gallo-Romance
 
Italiano
 
Proto-rumano
 
Palabras albanesas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Portugués
 
Español
 
Occitano-Romance
 
Francés
 
Rumano
 
Arrumana
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Catalán
 
Occitano
 
 
 
 

Tenga en cuenta que Dálmata Hoy en día se agrupan bajo el proto-italiana en lugar de Romance Oriental [ cita requerida ].

[ editar ] Propuestas de las divisiones

Alcance de la variación en el desarrollo (muy conservador y muy innovador)
Forma
("Cantar")
Latino Nuorese
Sardo
Español Portugués Rumano Francés
Infinitivo cantare [Kantare] [Kantar] [K?ta (r)] [K?nta (re)] [??te]
Parte pasado. cant?tum [Kantatu] [Kantaðo] [K?tadu] [K?ntat] [??te]
Gerundio cantando [Kantande] [Kantando] [K?t?ndu] [K?nt?nd] [??t?]
1sg. indic. canto [Kanto] [Kanto] [K?tu] [K?nt] [??t]
2SG. indic. cantas [Kantas] [Kantas] [K?t?s] [K?nts ?] [??t]
3sg. indic. Cantat [Kantat] [Kanta] [K?t?] [K?nt?] [??t]
1 picolitro. indic. Cantamus [Kantamus] [Kantamos] [K?t?mus] [K?nt?m] [??t?]
2 picolitros. indic. cant?tis [Kantates] [Kantais] [K?tajs] [K?ntats ?] [??te]
3PL. indic. cantant [Kantan] [Kantan] [K?t?w] [K?nt? [??t]
1sg. subj. Cantem [Kante] [Kante] [K?t (?) i] [K?nt] [??t]
2SG. subj. cantes [Kantes] [Kantes] [K?t (?) es] [K?nts ?] [??t]
3sg. subj. Cantet [Kantet] [Kante] [K?t (?) i] [K?nte] [??t]
1 picolitro. subj. Cantemus [Kantemas] [Kantemos] [K?temus] [K?nt?m] [??tj?]
2 picolitros. subj. cant?tis [Kantetas] [Kanteis] [K?tejs] [K?ntats ?] [??tje]
3PL. subj. cantent [Kanten] [Kanten] [K?t?j] [K?nte] [??t]
2SG. impv. canta [Kanta] [Kanta] [K?t?] [K?nt?] [??t]
2 picolitros. impv. cantate [Kantate] [Kantað] [K?taj] [K?ntats ?] [??te]

Hay varios esquemas utilizados para subdividir las lenguas romances. Tres de los esquemas más comunes son como sigue:

  1. Italo-occidental vs oriental vs Sur. Este es el esquema seguido de Ethnologue , y se basa principalmente en el resultado de las diez monophthong vocales en latín clásico. Esto se discute más abajo.
  2. Occidente vs Oriente. Este esquema divide las diversas lenguas a lo largo del de La Spezia-Rimini Line , que atraviesa de norte a centro de Italia, justo al norte de la ciudad de Florencia (cuya voz es la base de la norma italiana). En este esquema, "Oriente" incluye los idiomas del centro y el sur de Italia, y el Romance Balcanes (o "Romance del Este") las lenguas en Rumanía, Grecia y otros países en los Balcanes, "Oeste" incluye las lenguas de Portugal, España, Francia, el norte de Italia y Suiza. sarda no encaja fácilmente en este esquema.
  3. " conservador "frente a" innovador ". Se trata de una división no genética, cuyos límites precisos son objeto de debate. En general, las lenguas galo-romances (se discute más adelante) constituyen el núcleo "innovadoras" y lenguas, con la norma francesa en general, considerado como el más innovador de todos, mientras que los idiomas cercanos a la periferia (que incluyen español, portugués, italiano y rumano) están " conservador ". Cerdeña se reconoce generalmente la lengua romance más conservador, y también fue el primer idioma que se separó genéticamente del resto, posiblemente tan temprano como el siglo 1 aC. Dante famoso denigrado a los sardos de la prudencia de su discurso, señalando que imitan a América ", como los monos imitar a los hombres". [7]

Las subfamilias principales que han sido propuestos por Ethnologue dentro de los diversos sistemas de clasificación de las lenguas romances son los siguientes:

  • Italo-occidental , el grupo más numeroso, que incluye lenguas como el catalán, portugués, italiano, español y francés.
  • Romance Oriental , que incluye las lenguas románicas de Europa del Este, como Rumania.
  • Romance del Sur , que incluye varios idiomas con características particularmente arcaicas, como la de Cerdeña y, parcialmente, el corso. Esta familia se cree que han incluido las lenguas romances ya desaparecido de África (o por lo menos, parece que han evolucionado sus vocales de la misma manera).

La división de tres vías se basa principalmente en el resultado del latín vulgar (proto-romance) vocales:

Resultado de clásicos vocales latinas
El latín clásico Protorromance Italo-Occidental Este Romance Romance del Sur
Un corto / A / / A / / A / / A /
Una larga
E corta / ? / / ? / / ? / / E /
E a largo / E / / E / / E /
corto que / ? / / I /
tiempo me / I / / I / / I /
O corta / ? / / ? / / O / / O /
O larga / O / / O /
U corta / ? / / U / / U /
larga U / U / / U /

Italo-occidental es en el reparto a su vez a lo largo de la llamada de La Spezia-Rimini Line en el norte de Italia, que divide a los idiomas italiano del centro y sur de las llamadas lenguas romances occidentales en el norte y el oeste. Las características principales que dividen los dos son:

  1. La lenición de las paradas de intervocálicas, lo que sucede en el noroeste, pero no hacia el sureste.
  2. Degemination de las paradas de la producción de nuevos geminadas (oclusivas sordas intervocálicas, después de que los viejos se lenitivo), que de nuevo ocurre en el noroeste, pero no hacia el sureste.
  3. La supresión de las vocales intertonic (entre la sílaba acentuada y, o bien la primera sílaba o la última), de nuevo en el noroeste, pero no el sureste.
  4. El uso de los plurales en / s /, en el noroeste frente a los plurales con cambio vocálico en el sureste.
  5. Desarrollo de palatalizada / k / antes / e, i / a / (t) s / en el noroeste vs / t? / en el sureste.
  6. Desarrollo de / kt /, que se desarrolla a / XT /> / es / (a veces avanza más hacia / t? /) en el noroeste, pero tt / / en el sureste.

De hecho, la realidad es algo más complejo. Todos los "Sudeste" características se aplican a todos los idiomas al sureste de la línea, y todos los "noroeste" características se aplican a todos los idiomas en Francia y España (la mayoría). Sin embargo, las lenguas galo-itálico y los idiomas retorromances de Suiza e Italia están en el medio. Todas estas lenguas tienen el "Noroeste" características de la lenición y la pérdida de geminación. Sin embargo:

  • Las lenguas galo-itálico han vocal-en lugar de cambiar los plurales / s / plural.
  • El idioma lombardo en el centro-norte de Italia y las lenguas romances reto-que el "sureste", característico de / t? / en lugar de / (t) s / a palatalizada / k /.
  • La lengua veneciana en el noreste de Italia y algunos de los idiomas retorromances tienen el "sureste", característico de países en desarrollo / kt / a / tt /.

Además de esto, la antigua lengua mozárabe en el sur de España, en el extremo más alejado del "noroeste" del grupo, tenía las características de "Sudeste" de la falta de lenición y palatalización de / k / a / t? /. Algunas lenguas de todo el Pirineo (por ejemplo, algunas tierras altas de Aragón dialectos) también carecen de lenición, y el norte de dialectos franceses, como Norman y Picard tiene palatalización de / k / a / t? / (aunque esto es posiblemente un desarrollo independiente, secundario, ya que / k / entre vocales, es decir, cuando se someten a la lenición, desarrollado a / dz / en lugar de / d? /, como se esperaría para un desarrollo primario).

La solución habitual a estas cuestiones es la creación de varios subgrupos anidados. Romance Occidental se divide en las lenguas galo-ibéricas, en el que sucede lenición y que incluyen casi todas las lenguas romances occidentales, y el grupo de los Pirineos-mozárabe, que incluye los idiomas restantes sin lenición (y es poco probable que sea válida clado , probablemente por lo menos dos clados, uno para mozárabe y una para pirenaico). Gallo-Ibérica se divide a su vez en las lenguas ibéricas (por ejemplo, Español y Portugués ), y las grandes lenguas románicas-Gallo (que se extiende desde el este de España al noreste de Italia).

Probablemente una descripción más precisa, sin embargo, sería decir que no fue un punto central de la innovación ubicado en el centro de Francia, de la cual una serie de innovaciones hacia fuera, como los cambios de áreas . El de La Spezia-Rimini Line representa el punto más alejado hacia el sureste que estas innovaciones llegaron, correspondiente a la cadena norte de las montañas de los Apeninos , que corta en línea recta al norte de Italia y constituye un importante obstáculo a la propagación geográfica más el idioma.

Esto explicaría por qué algunas de las características "noroeste" (casi todos los cuales pueden ser caracterizados como innovaciones) finales en diferentes puntos del norte de Italia, y por qué algunas de las lenguas en las partes alejadas geográficamente de España (en el sur, y alta en de los Pirineos) se carece de algunas de estas características. También explica por qué las lenguas en Francia (sobre todo el francés estándar) parece que han innovado antes y más completamente que otras lenguas románicas occidentales.

Muchos de los "Sudeste" características también se aplican a las lenguas románicas orientales (en particular, rumano), a pesar de la discontinuidad geográfica. Ejemplos de ello son la falta de lenición, el mantenimiento de las vocales intertonic, el uso de las vocales que cambian los plurales, y palatalización de / k / a / t? /. (Geminación falta, que puede ser un desarrollo independiente, y / kt / se convierte en / pt / en lugar de cualquiera de las normales italo-occidentales desarrollos.) Esto ha llevado a algunos investigadores a postular una base de dos vías la división Este-Oeste, con los "oriental" idiomas, incluyendo el rumano y el centro y sur de Italia.

Cerdeña no encaja en esta imagen en absoluto. Está claro que Cerdeña se convirtió en lingüística independiente del resto de las lenguas romances en una fecha muy temprana, posiblemente ya en el siglo primero. Cerdeña contiene un gran número de rasgos arcaicos, como la falta total de palatalización de / k / y / g / y una gran cantidad de vocabulario conserva en ningún otro lugar, incluyendo algunos elementos arcaicos que ya en el momento del latín clásico (siglo 1 aC).

Cerdeña tiene plurales en / s /, pero no lenición de las consonantes sordas (al menos en la mayoría de conservadores Nuorese dialectos) y una serie de innovaciones que no se ven en otras partes: la más famosa, su sistema vocálico único, sino también el desarrollo de la / es / a / a /, una especie peculiar de lenición que opera como una característica sincrónica, y el uso de su <ipsum como un artículo (otro rasgo arcaico, también se ve en el catalán de la Islas Baleares ).

[ editar ] galo-romances idiomas

Las lenguas galo-romances son generalmente considerado como el más innovador (por lo menos conservador) entre todas las lenguas romances. El norte de Francia - la zona medieval de la lengua de oïl , de los cuales el francés moderno desarrollado - fue el epicentro. Típico Gallo-Romance cuenta con más temprana en general, desarrollado y aparecen en su manifestación más extrema en el aceite de langue d', poco a poco extendiéndose desde allí a lo largo de vías fluviales y carreteras transalpinas. No es casual que la primera escritura de romance vernácula se produjo en el norte de Francia: Por lo general, el desarrollo de la escritura vernácula en una zona determinada se vio obligado por la incapacidad casi total de hablantes de romance para entender el latín clásico que todavía sirve como vehículo de la escritura y cultura.

Gallo-lenguas románicas en su conjunto se caracterizan por la pérdida de todas las vocales átonas finales distintos de /-a / (lo más importante, final /-o / y la /-e / se perdieron). Sin embargo, cuando la pérdida de una vocal final se traduciría en un grupo final imposible (por ejemplo, / tr /), un vocal de la Proposición aparece en lugar de la vocal pierde, por lo general / e /. En general, los mismos cambios también ocurrieron en las sílabas finales cerrada por una consonante.

Además, la pérdida de la / e / en una sílaba final era lo suficientemente temprano en la Primitiva del francés antiguo que el latín clásico de tercera singular / t / se ha conservado a menudo, por ejemplo, venit "que venga"> / v? ? neta / (cambios Romance vocales)> / vj?net / (diptongación)> / vj?ned / (lenición)> / vj?nd / (Gallo-Romance pérdida de la vocal final)> / vj?nt / (ensordecimiento final). Por otra parte, la pérdida de la vocal final se produjo más tarde y / o sin protección / t / se perdió antes (tal vez bajo la influencia italiana).

Gallo-Romance está dividida en cuatro formas:

  • Las lenguas occitano-románicas del sur de Francia y norte de España, incluyendo el occitano y el catalán . Los miembros del sur de este grupo son los más conservadores entre todos los galo-romance, con el catalán el más conservador de todos. Sin embargo, el grupo es conocido por un innovador / ? / final en muchos verbos subjuntivos y pretérito, y un desarrollo inusual de [D] (América-d-intervocálica), que en muchas variedades se fusiona con [dz] (a partir de intervocálica palatalizada - c-y-ty-). La inclusión del catalán en este grupo (y en las lenguas galo-romances en su conjunto) está en disputa, con algunos prefiriendo para agruparlo con los idiomas romances ibero- : Esto refleja el hecho de que en su desarrollo temprano, el catalán se asoció estrechamente con los dialectos occitanos, pero se convirtió en lingüística independiente por parte del siglo 10 o algo así, con más influencia que viene de España.
  • El Langues d'oïl , sobre todo francesa , pero incluyendo también franco-provenzal .
  • Las lenguas galo-italianas del norte de Italia, como Piamonte , Liguria , Lombard occidental , Lombard Oriental , y Emiliano Romagnolo- .
  • Los idiomas retorromances , incluidos varios idiomas de las montañas del sureste de Suiza, así como los idiomas noreste italiano de ladino y friulano . Este es un grupo diverso, con los idiomas suizos toman después de la langues d'oïl y los idiomas italiano, teniendo después de las próximas romances ítalo- idiomas.

Aparte de el sur de occitano-romance, las lenguas galo-romances son bastante innovador, con el francés y algunas de las lenguas galo-italianas que rivalizan entre sí por los cambios fonológicos más extremas en comparación con las lenguas conservadoras. Por ejemplo, el francés Sain, santo, sein, CEINT, CEINT que significa "santo saludable, mama, (él) ciñe, (fue) ceñidos" (América sanum, lugar sagrado, Sinum, cinget, cinctum) se pronuncian / s? /; de manera similar ciento, enviada, sans, cantó que significa "cien, (él) se siente, sin la sangre" (del latín centum, sentit, (ab) Sentis, sanguen) se pronuncian / s? /.

En algunos aspectos, sin embargo, las lenguas galo-romances son conservadores. Las etapas más antiguas de muchas de las lenguas son famosos por la preservación de un sistema de dos de los casos consiste en nominativo y oblicuo: plenamente marcada en los sustantivos, adjetivos y determinantes, heredado casi directamente de los casos de América nominativo y el acusativo y la preservación de un número de diferentes clases de declinaciones y formas irregulares.

En el frente de la pauta normal, las lenguas más cercanas al epicentro oïl preservar el sistema de casos lo mejor, mientras que las lenguas de la periferia - Cerca de idiomas que había perdido mucho antes de que el sistema de casos, excepto en los pronombres - que pierden tiempo. Por ejemplo, el sistema de casos está bien conservado, en occitano antiguo a través del siglo 13 o así, pero se pierde totalmente en catalán antiguo en el tiempo, a pesar de ser prácticamente el mismo idioma en el momento.

Amplia reducción en francés: sap?tum> su / sy / "conocido"
Lengua Cambiar Forma Pronunciación.
El latín vulgar - sap?tum / SAPU ? tu ? /
Romance Occidental cambios vocálicos,
lenición primero
/ Sabu ? hacer /
Gallo-Romance la pérdida de las vocales finales / Sabu ? t /
pre-francesa lenición en segundo lugar,
pérdida de longitud
/ Savu? /
pérdida de la / v / cerca
vocal redondeada
/ S?u? /
a principios del francés antiguo frente de la / u / SEUT / S?y? /
El francés antiguo pérdida de las fricativas dentales seu / S?y /
Francés colapso de hiato Su / Sy /
Amplia reducción en francés: vitam> vie / vi / la "vida"
Lengua Cambiar Forma Pronunciación.
El latín vulgar - vitam / Vi ? ? tã /
Romance Occidental cambios vocálicos,
lenición primero
/ Vi ? / da
a principios del francés antiguo lenición en segundo lugar,
pérdida de longitud,
final / a / a / ? /
véase / Við? /
El francés antiguo pérdida de las fricativas dentales rivalizar / Vi? /
Francés pérdida de la final de schwa rivalizar / Vi /


Características principales de las lenguas galo-romances son los siguientes:

  • Pérdida temprana de todas las vocales finales que no sea / / A - La característica que define, como se señaló anteriormente.
  • Las nuevas reducciones de las vocales finales en Langue d'oïl y muchas lenguas galo-itálico , con lo femenino / a / y la vocal prop / e / en la fusión de / ? /, que a menudo se redujo posteriormente.
  • Disminución precoz, pesado de las vocales átonas en el interior de una palabra (otra característica definitoria). Esto, junto con la reducción de la vocal final, representa la mayor parte de las extremas diferencias fonéticas entre los dialectos italianos septentrionales y centrales, que de otra manera comparten una gran cantidad de vocabulario y la sintaxis.
  • La pérdida de las vocales finales phonemicized las vocales largas que antes eran concomitantes automáticos de estrés sílabas abiertas. Estos vocales largas fonológicas se mantienen directamente en muchos dialectos del norte de Italia. Por otra parte, la longitud del fonema se perdió, pero, mientras tanto, muchas de las vocales largas diptongadas, resultando en un mantenimiento de la distinción original. La lengua de la rama del petróleo es una vez más a la vanguardia de la innovación, con no menos de cinco de los siete vocales largas diphthongizing (sólo vocales altas se salvaron).
  • Frente vocales redondeadas están presentes en las cuatro ramas. / u / por lo general frentes a / y /, y el delantero central redondeada vocales secundaria a menudo se desarrollan a largo / o ? / y / o / ? ? /.
  • Lenición extrema (es decir, múltiples rondas de lenición) se produce en muchos idiomas esp. en Langue d'oïl y muchas lenguas galo-italianas . Los ejemplos de Francia: vitam> VIE / vi / la "vida"; * sap?tum> su / sy / "conocido", del mismo modo vu / vy / "visto" <* vid?tum, pu / py / "podido" <* pot?tum, la Unión Europea / y / "tenía" <* hab?tum.
  • La Langue d'oïl , suizos lenguas reto-románicas , y muchos de los dialectos del norte del occitano tiene una secundaria de palatalización de / k / y / ? / antes de / a /, produciendo resultados diferentes de la palatalización Romance principal: centum por ejemplo, "cien" > cent / s? /, cantum "canción"> canto / ?? /.
  • Aparte de las lenguas occitano-románicas , la mayoría de los galo-romances lenguas están sujetos-obligatoria (mientras que el resto de las lenguas romances son pro-drop idiomas). Este es un desarrollo tardío provocado por la erosión progresiva de fonética: el francés antiguo era todavía un lenguaje nulo tema, y ??esto sólo cambió en la pérdida de las consonantes finales en segundo lugar, en francés medio.

Los galo-italianas e italianos retorromances idiomas tienen una serie de características en común con las lenguas italianas otros:

  • Pérdida de la / s / final, lo que provoca aumento de la vocal precedente (más correctamente, la / s / " debuccalizes "a / j /, que se monophthongized en la vocal superior), por ejemplo, /-as / -> /-e / , /-es / -> /-i /, por lo tanto, italiano estándar plural cani <bastones, subjuntivo tu canti <tu cantes, lo que indica tu cante <tu cantas (ahora tu Canti en la norma italiana, tomada del subjuntivo); amiche "femenino amigos "<Amicas. [8]
  • El uso del nominativo-i para los plurales masculinos en lugar de acusativo-os.

[ editar ] pidgins, creoles, y los lenguajes mixtos

Algunas lenguas romances han desarrollado variedades que parecen radicalmente reestructurado en cuanto a sus gramáticas o para ser mezclas con otros idiomas. No siempre es claro si se debe clasificar como romance, pidgins , las lenguas criollas , o una mezcla de idiomas . Algunos otros idiomas, como Inglés , son a veces considerados como los criollos de ascendencia semi-romance. Hay varias docenas de criollos del portugués , swahili , la española y la francesa de origen , algunos de ellos se habla como lengua nacional en las ex colonias europeas.

Criollos de francés:

Criollos del español:

Criollos del portugués:

[ editar ] Idiomas auxiliares y construido

América y las lenguas romances también han servido de inspiración y la base de numerosas lenguas auxiliares y construido, como Interlingua , la reforma de la versión moderna de América, [9] sine flexione latina , occidental , y Lingua Franca Nova , así como los idiomas creados para fines artísticos, tales como Talossan . Debido a que el latín es una lengua muy bien atestiguado antiguo, algunos lingüistas aficionados incluso han construido las lenguas romances que reflejan las lenguas reales que se desarrollaron a partir de otras lenguas ancestrales. Estos incluyen Brithenig (que refleja Gales ), Breathanach [10] (espejos de Irlanda ), Wenedyk (espejos de Polonia ), Þrjótrunn (espejos de Islandia ), [11] y la Helvética (espejos Alemania ). [12]

[ editar ] Rasgos lingüísticos

[ editar ] Características básicas

Las lenguas romances tienen una serie de características comunes en todos los idiomas siguientes:

  • Lenguas romances moderadamente inflexiones , es decir, hay un sistema moderadamente complejo de afijos (principalmente sufijos ) que se adjuntan a las palabras para transmitir la información gramatical, como el número , género , persona , tiempo , verbos, etc tienen la inflexión mucho más que nombres. El importe de la síntesis es mucho más de Inglés , pero menos que el latín clásico y mucho menos de las más antiguas lenguas indoeuropeas (por ejemplo, el griego clásico , sánscrito ). La inflexión es fusional , con un solo morfema que representa múltiples funciones (en contraste con lenguas aglutinantes como el turco o el japonés ). Por ejemplo, el portugués AMEI "Me encantó" se compone de am-"amor" y el morfema-ei fusional "en primera persona, singular, pretérito , indicativo ".
  • Las lenguas romances tienen una bastante estricta sujeto-verbo-objeto de orden de las palabras, con el uso predominante de la cabeza por delante ( ramificación derecha ) construcciones. Los adjetivos, genitivos y todas las cláusulas relativas siguen su nombre núcleo, aunque (excepto en rumano ) determinantes suelen preceder.
  • En general, los sustantivos, adjetivos y determinantes declinar sólo de acuerdo con el género gramatical (masculino o femenino) y número gramatical (singular o plural). caso gramatical está marcada sólo en los pronombres, como en Inglés, la marca de caso, como en Inglés, es de la nominativo-acusativo tipo (en vez de por ejemplo, el ergativo-absolutivo marcado de los vascos o la ergatividad división del hindi ). Una excepción significativa, sin embargo, es rumana , con marcado dos de los casos (nominativo / acusativo, genitivo vs / dativo) en los elementos nominales.
  • Los verbos se declinan de acuerdo con una morfología compleja, que marca persona , número (singular o plural), tiempo , estado de ánimo (indicativo, subjuntivo e imperativo), y, a veces de aspecto y / o de género . voz gramatical (activa, pasiva, media / reflexiva) y algunos aspectos gramaticales (en particular, el aspecto perfecto ) se expresan mediante perifrásticas construcciones.
  • La mayoría de las lenguas románicas son lenguas sujetos nulos (pero moderno francés no es, como resultado de la descomposición fonética de las terminaciones de los verbos).
  • Todas las lenguas románicas tienen dos artículos ( definida y por tiempo indefinido ), y muchos tienen además un artículo partitivo (que expresa el concepto de "algo"). En algunos idiomas (en particular, Francia ), el uso de un artículo con un nombre es casi obligatorio, sino que sirve para expresar el número gramatical (ya no está marcado en la mayoría de los sustantivos) y hacer frente a la extrema homofonía del vocabulario francés, como resultado de una amplia reducciones de sonido.
  • La fonología de muchas lenguas romances es de tamaño moderado, con pocos fonemas extraños. Longitud de la vocal fonémica es poco común. Algunas lenguas se han desarrollado las vocales nasales y / o vocales frontales redondeados .
  • Acento de la palabra es de la tensión (dinámico), en lugar de hacer uso de la cancha (como en griego antiguo y algunas lenguas eslavas modernas), y es gratis, se producen más o menos impredecible en una de las tres últimas sílabas. En la práctica, la tensión es muy predecible, debido a las muchas morfológicas y fonológicas relacionados con el estrés patrones.

[ editar ] Cambios en el latín clásico

Caso del sistema

Los cambios más significativos entre el latín clásico y el proto-romance (y por lo tanto todas las lenguas romances modernas) se refieren a la reducción y pérdida de la América sistema de casos , y los correspondientes cambios sintácticos que se desencadenaron.

El sistema de casos se redujo drásticamente a partir de la vigorosa seis de los casos el sistema de América. Aunque cuatro de los casos se pueden construir para los nombres romances proto-(nominativo, acusativo, genitivo combinado / dativo y vocativo), el vocativo es marginal y presente sólo en Rumania (donde puede ser una innovación absoluta), y del resto de los casos, no más de dos están presentes en cualquier lenguaje de una. El rumano es la única lengua romance moderno con la marca de casos en los sustantivos, con una oposición de dos vías entre el nominativo / acusativo y genitivo / dativo.

Algunos de los mayores galo-romances lenguas (en particular, del francés antiguo , occitano antiguo y Sursilvan Antiguo ) tuvo una oposición entre el nominativo y en general oblicua. El sistema de declinaciones nominales múltiples también fue reducido drásticamente; idiomas más modernos tienen sólo tres tipos (masculino-o, femenino-a, y un correo que puede ser uno u otro sexo). Al igual que en Inglés, el caso se conserva mejor en los pronombres que en otras partes, con algunos pronombres marcados para un máximo de cuatro casos (nominativo, acusativo, dativo, genitivo), además de otros posesivos y disyuntiva formas.

Concomitante con la pérdida de los casos, la libertad de orden de las palabras se redujo considerablemente. El latín clásico tenía una orden de las palabras en general, el verbo al final (SOV), pero en general bastante libre, con una cantidad significativa de la palabra revolver y la mezcla de ramificación a la izquierda y la ramificación derecha construcciones. Las lenguas romances la palabra eliminado de aleatorización y de casi todas las construcciones de ramificación izquierda, con la mayoría de las lenguas el desarrollo de un aceite vegetal rígida, de ramificación derecha de sintaxis. ( francés antiguo , sin embargo, tenía una orden de palabras más libre debido al sistema de dos-caso todavía presente, así como una predominantemente orden de las palabras verbo-segundo desarrollado bajo la influencia de las lenguas germánicas .)

Algunos libertad, sin embargo, se permite en la colocación de los adjetivos en relación con su nombre núcleo. Además, algunos idiomas (por ejemplo, español, rumano) tienen una "preposición de acusativo" (rumano por, el español "personal a"), junto con la duplicación mediante clíticos , lo que permite cierta libertad para ordenar los argumentos de un verbo.

Las lenguas románicas desarrolladas artículos gramaticales en América no tenían ninguna. Los artículos con frecuencia se introducen en la época de un sistema sólido argumento se cae a pedazos con el fin de eliminar la ambigüedad de los marcadores de caso restante (que suelen ser demasiado ambigua por sí mismos) y para servir como pistas de análisis que indican la presencia de un sustantivo (una función que anteriormente se desempeñó por el casos de los propios terminales).

Este fue el patrón seguido por las lenguas romances: En las lenguas romances que aún se conserva un sistema de funcionamiento nominal de casos (por ejemplo, rumano y francés antiguo), sólo la combinación de artículo y el caso final sirve para identificar de forma única número y caso (compárese con la situación similar en la actual Alemania ). Todas las lenguas romances tienen un artículo definido (originalmente desarrollado a partir de ipse "yo" sino que se reemplazan en casi todos los idiomas de ille ", que (más allá)") y un artículo indefinido (desarrollado a partir de unus "uno"). Muchos de ellos también tiene un artículo partitivo (de "de" + el artículo definido).

América tuvo un gran número de construcciones sintácticas expresadas a través de los infinitivos, participios y similares construcciones nominales. Algunos ejemplos son el ablativo absoluto , la construcción de acusativo-más-infinitivo utilizado para el estilo indirecto , gerundio construcciones, y el uso común de la reducción de las cláusulas relativas expresadas a través de los participios. Todos estos son reemplazados en las lenguas románicas por las cláusulas subordinadas expresan con verbos finitos, por lo que las lenguas romances mucho más "verbal" y menos "nominal" de América. Bajo la influencia de la sprachbund los Balcanes , Rumania ha progresado más lejos, eliminando en gran parte el infinitivo. (En la actualidad se están reactivando, sin embargo, debido a la creciente influencia de otras lenguas romances).

Otros cambios
  • La pérdida de la fonética longitud de la vocal , y el cambio a un lenguaje libre de estrés. El latín clásico tenía una tensión determinada automáticamente en la segunda sílaba o la tercera desde el final, condicionado por la longitud de la vocal, longitud de la vocal, una vez se neutralizó, el estrés ya no era predecible, siempre y cuando se quedó donde estaba (que la mayoría lo hizo).
  • Desarrollo de una serie de consonantes palatales como resultado de palatalización .
  • La pérdida de la mayoría de los rastros del género neutro.
  • Desarrollo de una serie de analíticas tiempos perfectos , comparables a Inglés "que he hecho, yo había hecho, tendré que hacer".
  • La pérdida de la voz pasiva sintética América, reemplazado por una construcción analítica similar al inglés "que está / estaba hecho".
  • La pérdida de los verbos declarante , sustituido por el activo de voz verbos.
  • Sustitución de la tensa América futuro con una nueva forma tensa (en general) por una perífrasis de infinitivo + presente de habere "han", que generalmente se contrae en un tenso sintética. Un correspondiente condicional está formada en la misma forma, pero utilizando una de las formas en tiempo pasado de habere.
  • Numerosos cambios léxicos. Un número de palabras que fueron tomados de las lenguas germánicas y las lenguas celtas . Muchos sustantivos y los verbos básicos, especialmente aquellos que eran cortos y / o tenían morfología irregular, fueron reemplazados por formas más derivadas con morfología normal. A lo largo de la época medieval, las palabras fueron tomados del latín clásico en su forma original (palabras aprendidas) o en algo parecido a la forma original (semi-doctos palabras), a menudo para sustituir a las formas populares de las mismas palabras.

[ editar ] Fonología

[ editar ] Vocales

Cada idioma tiene un conjunto diferente de vocales de todos los demás. Las características comunes son como sigue:

  • La mayoría de los idiomas tienen por lo menos cinco monophthongs o aeiou /. El lenguaje de los padres de la mayoría de los romances ítalo-occidentales lenguas (que incluye la gran mayoría) en realidad tenía un sistema de siete vocales / a ? ? ei ou /, que se mantiene en la mayoría de los italo-occidentales idiomas. En algunos idiomas, como el español y el rumano, el estado fonológico y la diferencia entre las vocales abiertas y cerca de mediados de mediados de los se había perdido. Francés tiene, probablemente, el mayor inventario de monophthongs, con las variedades conservadoras con 12 vocales orales / a ? ? ei ? ou œ O y ? / [13] y 4 vocales nasales / ? ? ? œ /. portuguesa también tiene un gran inventario, con 8 ~ 9 monophthongs orales / a ? ? ei ? ou ? /, con la última sólo se producen en el portugués europeo, 5 monophthongs nasales / ? EX I o U /, y un gran número de diptongos orales y nasales (ver más abajo). / ? / desarrollado como el alófono de / a / ante nasales y en baja tensión, y los dos siguen siendo casi en la distribución complementaria. En cuanto a portugués europeo, algunos pares mínimos como falamos / f?l?mu? / "hablamos" vs falámos / f?lamu? / "hablamos" parecen indicar claramente que los / ? / debe ser un fonema, pero otros análisis son posibles. / ? / , que se desarrolló desde principios de / e / en sílabas átonas es muy dudoso. </ ref>
  • Algunos idiomas tienen un gran inventario de la caída de los diptongos . Estos pueden o no pueden ser considerados como unidades fonéticas (en lugar de secuencias de + vocal de planeo), dependiendo de su comportamiento. A modo de ejemplo, francés, español e italiano tienen casos ocasionales de supuestos diptongos caída formadas a partir de una vocal no silábica más una / i / o / u / (por ejemplo, español Veinte [beinte] "veinte", Deuda [Deuda] "deuda"; francés paille / paj / "paja", caucho / kawt?u / "de goma"; italiana lui / lui / "él", Potei / Potei / "pude"), pero normalmente se analizan como secuencias de vocal y planeo. Los diptongos en rumano, portugués, catalán y occitano, sin embargo, tienen varias propiedades que sugieren que están mejor analizados como los fonemas de la unidad. Portugués, por ejemplo, tiene los diptongos / AJ ?j ?j ej ?j DO uj w ?w ew IW (OW) /, donde / ow / (y en menor medida / ej /) aparecen sólo en algunos dialectos. Todos, excepto / aw ?w / aparecen con frecuencia en verbo y / o flexiones nominales. (En portugués también tiene diptongos nasales, véase más adelante).
  • Entre las principales lenguas romances, portugués y francés tienen las vocales nasales fonemas, derivada de la nasalización antes de una consonante nasal seguida por la pérdida de la consonante (esto ocurrió sobre todo cuando la consonante nasal no fue seguido directamente por una vocal). Originalmente, las vocales en ambos idiomas se nasalized antes de todas las consonantes nasales, pero se han quedado denasalized antes de las consonantes nasales que aún quedan (excepto en portugués de Brasil , donde las vocales de pre-nasales en palabras tales como cama "cama", menos "menos" siguen siendo altamente nasalized). En portugués, las vocales nasales a veces se analizan como secuencias de fonemas de las vocales orales, además de una consonante nasal subyacente, pero este tipo de análisis es difícil en Francia debido a la existencia de pares mínimos como bon / b? / "bueno (masc.)", bonne / b?n / "bueno (fem.)". En los dos idiomas, hay menos nasal que las vocales orales. Nasalización vocal provocado la reducción en francés, la producción de los 4 vocales nasales / ? ? ? œ / (aunque la mayoría de los oradores hoy en día se pronuncia / œ / como / ? /). Vocal fondos se desencadenó en portugués, sin embargo, la producción de las 5 vocales nasales / ? EX I o U /. La contracción de vocales y otros cambios también dio lugar a los diptongos portugueses nasales / ?w ?j Ej Oj Uj / (de los cuales / uj / se presenta en una sola palabra, muito / m?jtu / "mucho, mucho, mucho", y [EJ] es en realidad un final de sílaba alófono de / / E).
  • La mayoría de las lenguas tienen menos vocales en sílabas átonas que las sílabas tónicas. Esto refleja una vez más la lengua romance Italo-Occidental padre, que tenía un sistema de siete vocales en sílabas acentuadas (como se describió anteriormente), pero sólo / aeiou / (sin vocales bajas y medias) en sílabas átonas. Algunas lenguas se han visto reducciones adicionales: por ejemplo, catalán estándar sólo tiene [? iu] en sílabas átonas. Francés, por otro lado, permite ahora a sus 12 vocales fonémicas a ocurrir ya sea subrayado o sin tensiones.
  • La mayoría de lenguas tienen vocales aún menos en la final de sílabas átonas que en otros lugares. Por ejemplo, las primeras etapas de la mayoría de lenguas románicas occidentales permite sólo / AEO /. Algunos de estos lenguajes permiten ahora más: español, por ejemplo, permite ahora a los cinco de sus vocales a ocurrir en sílabas átonas finales, pero / iu / sólo se producen en pocas palabras prestadas, por ejemplo, tribu "tribu", el taxi "taxi". Las lenguas galo-romances fue aún más lejos, la fusión final de / eo /, y el francés ha llevado las cosas al extremo lógico, suprimiendo todas las vocales post-estrés y de manera uniforme colocando el acento en la sílaba final (excepto para un no más o menos -fonémica átona final [?], que en ocasiones parece).
  • Longitud de la vocal fonémica es poco común. El latín vulgar perdido la longitud de la vocal fonética del latín clásico y lo reemplazó con un sistema de longitud no fonética en las vocales tónicas en sílabas abiertas eran largas, y todas las otras vocales eran cortas. Norma italiana sigue manteniendo este sistema, y se rephonemicized en las lenguas románicas-Gallo (incluidas las lenguas retorromances ) como consecuencia de la supresión de muchas vocales finales. Algunas lenguas del norte de Italia (por ejemplo, friulano ) todavía mantienen esta longitud fonética secundaria, pero en la mayoría de las lenguas de los nuevos vocales largas se diptongadas bien o acortado de nuevo, en el proceso de eliminación de la longitud del fonema. El francés es una vez más el tercero en discordia: A pesar de que sigue una normal Galo-romance del camino por el diphthongizing cinco de los siete vocales largas y acortando los dos restantes, que phonemicized un sistema vocálico tercer tramo de alrededor de 1300 DC en sílabas anteriormente cerradas con una / s / (todavía marcado con un acento circunflejo), y ahora está en el proceso de phonemicizing un cuarto sistema como resultado de alargamiento antes de finales fricativas sonoras.

[ editar ] Consonantes

La mayoría de las lenguas romances tienen un conjunto similar de consonantes. La siguiente es una tabla combinada de las consonantes de las cinco principales lenguas romances (francés, español, italiano, portugués, rumano).

Clave:

  • negrita: Aparece en los 5 idiomas.
  • cursiva: Aparece en las lenguas 3-4.
  • (Paréntesis): Aparece en 2 idiomas.
  • ((Doble paréntesis)): Aparece en sólo un idioma.

Cambios notables:

  • Español no tiene fricativas sonoras. El equivalente de la / v / se fusionó con / b /, y todo lo demás se convirtió en voz. Española también perdió / ? /, que se convirtió en / x /.
  • Las lenguas occidentales (francés, español, portugués), todos solían tener las africadas / ts /, / dz /, / t? /, / d? /. En el siglo 14 o algo así, todos estos se convirtieron en fricativas a excepción de español / t? / (Español / ts / terminó por convertirse en / ? /, por lo menos en el norte y centro de España, en otros lugares, que se fusionó con la / s /, como en el otros idiomas.) Rumania / dz / del mismo modo se convirtió en / z /.
  • Francés y español recientemente, han perdido / ? / (que se fusionó con / j /). Rumania se fusionó / ??? / y / ? / en / j /.

La mayoría de los casos de la mayoría de los sonidos que se producen por debajo (o se utiliza para producir, como se describió anteriormente) en todas las lenguas son afines. Sin embargo:

  • Although all of the languages had or used to have /t?/ , almost none of these sounds are cognate between pairs of languages. The only real exception is many /t?/ between Italian and Romanian, stemming from Latin C- before E or I. Italian also has /t?/ brom Vulgar Latin -CY- and supported -TY- (elsewhere /ts/). Former French /t?/ is from initial or supported Latin C- before A; Spanish /t?/ is from Latin -CT-; former Portuguese /t?/ is from initial or supported Latin PL, CL, FL.
  • Italian and former Romanian /dz/ (from some instances of Vulgar Latin -DY-) are not cognate with former western /dz/ (from lenition of /ts/).
Romance consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Interdental Dental /
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar /
Uvular
Glotal
Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless Expresado Voiceless
Nasal m n ?
Explosiva p b t d k ?
Africada ( ts ) (( dz )) t? ( d? )
Fricativa F v (( ? )) s z ? ? (( x )) (( h ))
Rhotic ?,r ( ? )
Lateral l ( ? )
Aproximante j w

[ edit ] Lexical stress

Word stress was rigorously predictable in classical Latin, either on the penultimate syllable (second from last) or antepenultimate syllable (third from last), according to the syllable weight of the penultimate syllable. This is no longer the case in most Romance languages, and stress differences can be enough to distinguish between words. For example, Italian Papa [?pa.pa] (Pope) and papà [pa.?pa] (daddy), or the Spanish imperfect subjunctive cantara ([if he] sang) and future cantará ([he] will sing). However, the main function of Romance stress appears to be a clue for speech segmentation — namely to help the listener identify the word boundaries in normal speech, where inter-word spaces are usually absent. [ citation needed ]

The position of the stressed syllable in a word generally varies from word to word in each Romance language. Stress usually remains fixed on its assigned syllable within any language, however, even as the word is inflected. It is usually restricted to one of the last three syllables in the word, although Italian verb forms can violate this, eg telefonano [te?l?.fo.na.no] (they telephone). The limit may be exceeded also by verbs with attached clitics , provided the clitics are counted as part of the word; eg Spanish entregándomelo [en.tre.??an.do.me.lo] (delivering it to me), Italian mettiamocene [me?t?ja?.mo.t?e.ne] (let's put some of it in there), or Portuguese dávamo-vo-lo [?da.v?.mu.vu.lu] (we were giving it to you).

Stress in the Romance Languages mostly remains on the same syllable as in Latin, but various sound changes have made it no longer so predictable. Still, stress patterns are usually similar across languages, and usually in the penultimate syllable, because in most cases of former antepenultimate stress, the unstressed penultimate syllable was deleted. In its modern form French is the noticeable exception in that stress falls predictably on the last syllable that does not contain a schwa .

It should be observed, however, that the final stress of Modern French is not the result of systematic stress shift, but of the phonological erosion of syllables following the Proto-Romance stressed syllable; thus while eg Italian transparently maintains Latin stress on the second syllable of an infinitive such as amare /a?mare/, in fact French does, too: aimer /??me/, replicating at first Spanish /a?mar/, but going beyond in losing /r/ as well.

[ edit ] Nominal morphology

Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns can be marked for gender , number and case . Adjectives and pronouns must agree in all features with the noun they are bound to.

[ edit ] Number

The Romance languages inherited from Latin two grammatical numbers, singular and plural; there is no trace of a dual number.

[ edit ] Gender

Most Romance languages have two grammatical genders , masculine and feminine. The gender of animate nouns is generally natural (ie nouns referring to men are generally masculine, and vice-versa), but for nonanimate nouns it is arbitrary.

Although Latin had a third gender (neuter), there is little trace of this in most languages. The biggest exception is Romanian , where there is a productive class of "neuter" nouns, which include the descendants of many Latin neuter nouns and which behave like masculines in the singular and feminines in the plural, both in the endings used and in the agreement of adjectives and pronouns (eg un deget "one finger" vs. dou? degete "two fingers", cf. Latin digitum , pl. digita ).

Such nouns arose because of the identity of the Latin neuter singular -um with the masculine singular, and the identity of the Latin neuter plural -a with the feminine singular. A similar class exists in Italian, although it is no longer productive (eg il dito "the finger" vs. le dita "the fingers", l'uovo "the egg" vs. le uova "the eggs"). (A few isolated nouns in Latin had different genders in the singular and plural, but this was an unrelated phenomen; this is similarly the case with a few French nouns, such as amour , délice , orgue .)

[ edit ] Case

Latin had an extensive case system, where all nouns were declined in six cases ( nominative , vocative , accusative , dative , genitive , and ablative ) and two numbers. Adjectives were additionally declined in three genders, leading to potentially 36 (6 * 2 * 3) different endings per adjective. In practice, some category combinations had identical endings to other combinations, but a basic adjective like bonus "good" still had 14 distinct endings.

Spanish pronoun inflections
Caso "I" "you"
(familiar sg.)
"oneself" "he" "she" "we"
Nominativo yo - él ella nosotros
Acusativo me te he aquí la nos
Dativo me te le le nos
Genitivo mío tuyo suyo suyo; de él suyo; de ella nuestro
Possessive mi tu Su Su Su nuestro
Disjunctive ti él ella nosotros
With con conmigo contigo consigo con él con élla con nosotros
(archaic connosco )

In all Romance languages, this system was drastically reduced. In most modern Romance languages, in fact, case is no longer marked at all on nouns, adjectives and determiners, and most forms are derived from the Latin accusative case. Much like English, however, case has survived somewhat better on pronouns.

Most pronouns have distinct nominative, accusative, genitive and possessive forms (cf. English "I, me, mine, my"). Many also have a separate dative form, a disjunctive form used after prepositions, and (in some languages) a special form used with the preposition con "with" (a conservative feature inherited from Latin forms such as m?cum , t?cum , nobiscum ).


Spanish inflectional classes
"boy" "girl" "man" "woman"
Singular chico Chica hombre mujer
Plural chicos chicas Hombres Mujeres

The system of inflectional classes is also drastically reduced. The basic system is most clearly indicated in Spanish, where there are only three classes, corresponding to the first, second and third declensions in Latin: plural in -as (feminine), plural in -os (masculine), plural in -es (either masculine or feminine). The singular endings exactly track the plural, except the singular -e is dropped after certain consonants.

The same system underlines many other modern Romance languages, such as Portuguese, French and Catalan. In these languages, however, further sound changes have resulted in various irregularities. In Portuguese, for example, loss of /l/ and /n/ between vowels (with nasalization in the latter case) produces various irregular plurals ( nação – nações "nation(s)"; hotel – hotéis "hotel(s)").

In French and Catalan, loss of /o/ and /e/ in most unstressed final syllables has caused the -os and -es classes to merge. In French, merger of remaining /e/ with final /a/ into [?] , and its subsequent loss, has completely obscured the original Romance system, and loss of final /s/ has caused most nouns to have identical pronunciation in singular and plural, although they are still marked differently in spelling (eg femme – femmes "woman – women", both pronounced /fam/ ).


Romanian noun inflections
La precisión Caso "boy" "girl"
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indefinite Nominativo
Acusativo
b?iat b?ie?i fat? festejar
Genitivo
Dativo
b?iat b?ie?i festejar festejar
Vocative b?iatule, b?iete b?ietilor fato (fat?) fetelor
Definido Nominativo
Acusativo
b?iatul b?ie?ii fata fetele
Genitivo
Dativo
b?iatului b?ie?ilor fetei fetelor

Noun inflection has survived in Romanian somewhat better than elsewhere. Determiners are still marked for two cases (nominative/accusative and genitive/dative) in both singular and plural, and feminine singular nouns have separate endings for the two cases. In addition, there is a separate vocative case, and the combination of noun with a following clitic definite article produces a separate set of "definite" inflections for nouns.

The inflectional classes of Latin have also survived more in Romanian than elsewhere, eg om – oameni "man – men" (Latin homohomines ); corp – corpuri "body – bodies" (Latin corpuscorpora ). (Many other exceptional forms, however, are due to later sound changes or analogy, eg cas? – case "house(s)" vs. lun? – luni "moon(s)"; frate – fra?i "brother(s)" vs. carte – c?r?i "book(s)" vs. vale – v?i "valley(s)".)

In Italian, the situation is somewhere in between Spanish and Romanian. There are no case endings and relatively few classes, as in Spanish, but noun endings are generally formed with vowels instead of /s/, as in Romanian: amico – amici "friend(s) (masc.)", amica – amiche "friend(s) (fem.)"; cane – cani "dog(s)". The masculine plural amici is thought to reflect the Latin nominative plural -? rather than accusative plural -?s (Spanish -os ); however, the other plurals are thought to stem from special developments of Latin -?s and -?s .


Evolution of case in various Romance languages (Latin bonus "good")
Caso Latino Español El francés antiguo Old Sursilvan Rumano
Masculino singular Nominativo prima bueno buens buns bun
Vocative hueso
Acusativo bonum Buen biVn
Genitivo bon?
Dativo bon?
Ablativo bon?
Masculine plural Nominativo bon? buenos Buen biVni buni
Vocative bon?
Acusativo bon?s buens buns
Genitivo bon?rum
Dativo bon?s
Ablativo bon?s
Femenino singular Nominativo bona Buena buene buna bun?
Vocative bona
Acusativo bonam
Genitivo bonae bune
Dativo bonae
Ablativo bon?
Feminine plural Nominativo bonae buenas buenes bunas bune
Vocative bonae
Acusativo bon?s
Genitivo bon?rum
Dativo bon?s
Ablativo bon?s

A different type of noun inflection survived into the medieval period in a number of western Romance languages ( Old French , Old Occitan , and the older forms of a number of Rhaeto-Romance languages ). This inflection distinguished nominative from oblique, with the accusative case grouped with the oblique rather than the nominative, as in Romanian.

The oblique case in these languages generally inherits from the Latin accusative; as a result, masculine nouns have distinct endings in the two cases while most feminine nouns don't.

A number of different inflectional classes are still represented at this stage. For example, the difference in the nominative case between masculine li voisins "the neighbor" and li pere "the father", and feminine la riens "the thing" vs. la fame "the woman", faithfully reflects the corresponding Latin inflectional differences ( vic?nus vs. pater , f?mina vs. r?s ).

A number of synchronically quite irregular differences between nominative and oblique reflect direct inheritances of Latin third-declension nouns with two different stems (one for the nominative singular, one for all other forms), most with of which had a stress shift between nominative and the other forms: li ber – le baron "baron" ( ba r?ba r? nem ); la suer – la seror "sister" ( so rorso r? rem ); li prestre – le prevoire "priest" ( pres byterpres by terem ); li sire – le seigneur "lord" ( se niorse ni?r em ); li enfes – l'enfant "child" ( in f?nsin fan tem ).

A few of these multi-stem nouns derive from Latin forms without stress shift, eg li om – le ome "man" ( ho m?ho minem ). All of these multi-stem nouns refer to people; other nouns with stress shift in Latin (eg a mora m? rem "love") have not survived. Interestingly, some of the same nouns with multiple stems in Old French and/or Old Occitan have come down in Italian in the nominative rather than the accusative (eg uomo "man" < ho m? , moglie "wife" < mu lier ), suggesting that a similar system existed in pre-literary Italian.

The modern situation in Sursilvan (one of the Rhaeto-Romance languages ) is unique in that the original nominative/oblique distinction has been reinterpreted as a predicative/attributive distinction:

  • il hotel ej v??iws natsionalizaws "the hotel has been nationalized"
  • il hotel natsionalizaw "the nationalized hotel"

[ edit ] Pronouns, determiners

As described above, case marking on pronouns is much more extensive than for nouns. Determiners (eg words such as "a", "the", "this") are also marked for case in Romanian.

Most Romance languages have the following sets of pronouns and determiners:

  • Personal pronouns , in three persons and two genders.
  • A reflexive pronoun , used when the object is the same as the subject. This approximately corresponds to English "-self", but separate forms exist only in the third person, with no number marking.
  • Definite and indefinite articles , and in some languages, a partitive article that expresses the concept of "some".
  • A two-way or three-way distinction among demonstratives . Many languages have a three-way distinction of distance (near me, near you, near him) not paralleled in current English, but formerly present as "this/that/yon".
  • Relative pronouns and interrogatives , with the same forms used for both (similar to English "who" and "which").
  • Various indefinite pronouns and determiners (eg Spanish algún "some", alguién "someone", algo "something"; ningún "no", nadie "no one"; todo "every"; cada "each"; mucho "much/many/a lot", poco "few/little"; otro "other/another"; etc.).

[ editar ] Los pronombres personales

Unlike in English, a separate neuter personal pronoun ("it") generally does not exist, but both singular and plural third person distinguish masculine from feminine. Also, as described above, case is marked on pronouns even though it is not usually on nouns, similar to English. As in English, there are forms for nominative case ( subject pronouns ), oblique case ( object pronouns ), and genitive case ( possessive pronouns ); in addition, third-person pronouns distinguish accusative and dative. There is also an additional set of possessive determiners, distinct from the genitive case of the personal pronoun; this corresponds to the English difference between "my, your" and "mine, yours".

[ edit ] Development from Latin

Latin had no third-person personal pronouns, using demonstratives in their place. The Romance languages have innovated a separate set of third-person pronouns by borrowing the demonstrative ille ("that (over there)"), and creating a separate reinforced demonstrative by attaching a variant of ecce "behold!" (or "here is ...") to the pronoun. Likewise, Latin had no third-person possessives, filling the gap with the genitive of the demonstrative pronouns.

The Romance languages instead borrow the reflexive possessive, which then serves indifferently as both reflexive and non-reflexive possessive. Note that the reflexive, and hence the third-person possessive, is unmarked for the gender of the person being referred to. Hence, although gendered possessive forms do exist — eg Portuguese seu (masc.) vs. sua (fem.) — these refer to the gender of the object possessed, not the possessor.

The gender of the possessor needs to be made clear by a collocation such as French la voiture à lui/elle , Portuguese o carro dele/dela , literally "the car of him/her". (In spoken Brazilian Portuguese , these collocations are the usual way of expressing the third-person possessive, since the former possessive seu carro now has the meaning "your car".)

The same demonstrative ille was borrowed to create the definite article (see below), which explains the similarity in form between personal pronoun and definite article. When the two are different, it is usually because of differing degrees of phonetic reduction. Generally, the personal pronoun is unreduced (beyond normal sound change), while the article has suffered various amounts of reduction, eg Spanish ella "she" < illa vs. la "the (fem.)" < -la < illa .

[ editar ] pronombres clíticos

Object pronouns in Latin were normal words, but in the Romance languages they have become clitic forms, which must stand adjacent to a verb and merge phonologically with it. Originally, object pronouns could come either before or after the verb; sound change would often produce different forms in these two cases, with numerous additional complications and contracted forms when multiple clitic pronouns cooccurred.

Catalan still largely maintains this system with a highly complex clitic pronoun system . Most languages, however, have simplified this system by undoing some of the clitic mergers and requiring clitics to stand in a particular position relative to the verb (usually after imperatives, before other finite forms, and either before or after non-finite forms depending on the language).

When a pronoun cannot serve as a clitic, a separate disjunctive form is used. These result from dative object pronouns pronounced with stress (which causes them to develop differently from the equivalent unstressed pronouns), or from subject pronouns.

Most Romance languages are null subject languages . The subject pronouns are used only for emphasis and take the stress, and as a result are not clitics. In French, however (as in some Gallo-Italian languages of northern Italy), verbal agreement marking has degraded to the point that subject pronouns have become mandatory, and have turned into clitics. These forms cannot be stressed, so for emphasis the disjunctive pronouns must be used in combination with the clitic subject forms. The Gallo-Italian languages have actually gone further than this and merged the subject pronouns onto the verb as a new type of verb agreement marking, which must be present even when there is a subject noun phrase. (Some non-standard varieties of French treat disjunctive pronouns as arguments and clitic pronouns as agreement markers. [ 14 ] )

[ edit ] Familiar–formal distinction

In medieval times, most Romance languages developed a distinction between familiar and polite second-person pronouns (a so-called TV distinction ), similar to the former English distinction between familiar "thou" and polite "you". As in English, this generally developed by appropriating the plural second-person pronoun to serve in addition as a polite singular. French is still at this stage, with familiar singular tu vs. formal or plural vous . In cases like this, the pronoun requires plural agreement in all cases whenever a single morpheme marks both person and number (as in verb agreement endings and object and possessive pronouns), but singular agreement elsewhere where appropriate (eg vous-même "yourself" vs. vous-mêmes "yourselves").

Many languages, however, innovated further in developing an even more polite pronoun, generally composed of a noun phrase (eg Portuguese vossa mercê "your mercy", progressively reduced to vossemecê , vosmecê and finally você ) and taking third-person singular agreement. A plural equivalent was created at the same time or soon after (Portuguese vossas mercês , reduced to vocês ), taking third-person plural agreement. Spanish innovated similarly, with usted(es) from earlier vuestra(s) merced(es) .

In Portuguese and Spanish (as in other languages with similar forms), the "extra-polite" forms in time came to be the normal polite forms, and the former polite (or plural) second-person vos knocked down to a familiar form, either becoming a familiar plural (as in European Spanish) or a familiar singular (as in many varieties of Latin American Spanish). In the latter case, it either competes with the original familiar singular tu (as in Guatemala), displaces it entirely (as in Argentina), or is itself displaced (as in Mexico). In American Spanish, the gap created by the loss of familiar plural vos was filled by originally polite ustedes , with the result that there is no familiar/polite distinction in the plural, just as in the original tu/vos system.

A similar path was followed by Italian and Romanian. Romanian uses dumneavoastr? "your lordship", while Italian the former polite phrase sua eccellenza "your excellency" has simply been supplanted by the corresponding pronoun Ella or Lei (literally "she", but capitalized when meaning "you"). As in European Spanish, the original second-person plural voi serves as familiar plural. (In Italy, during fascist times leading up to World War II , voi was resurrected as a polite singular, and discarded again afterwards, although it remains in some southern dialects.)

Portuguese innovated again in developing a new extra-polite pronoun o senhor "the sir", which in turn downgraded você . Hence, modern European Portuguese has a three-way distinction between "familiar" tu , "equalizing" você and "polite" o senhor . (The original second-person plural vós was discarded centuries ago in speech, and is used today only in translations of the Bible, where tu and vós serve as universal singular and plural pronouns, respectively.)

Brazilian Portuguese , however, has discarded this system entirely, and most dialects simply use você (and plural vocês ) as a general-purpose second person pronoun, combined with te (from tu ) as the clitic object pronoun. The form o senhor is sometimes used in speech, but only in situations where an English speaker would say "sir" or "ma'am". The result is that second-person verb forms have disappeared entirely, and the whole pronoun system has been radically realigned.

[ edit ] Articles

Latin had no articles as such. The closest definite article was the non-specific demonstrative is, ea, id meaning approximately "this/that/the". The closest indefinite articles were the indefinite determiners aliqu?, aliqua, aliquod "some (non-specific)" and certus "a certain".

Romance languages have both indefinite and definite articles, both none of the above words form the basis for either of these. Usually the definite article is derived from the Latin demonstrative ille ("that"), but some languages (eg Sardinian , and some dialects spoken around the Pyrenees) have forms from ipse (emphatic, as in "I myself"). The indefinite article everywhere derives from the number ?nus ("one").

Some languages, eg French and Italian, have a partitive article that approximately translates as "some". This is used either with mass nouns or with plural nouns — both cases where the indefinite article cannot occur. A partitive article is used (and in French, required) whenever a bare noun refers to specific (but unspecified or unknown) quantity of the noun, but not when a bare noun refers to a class in general. For example, the partitive would be used in both of the following sentences:

  • I want milk.
  • Men arrived today.

But neither of these:

  • Milk is good for you.
  • I hate men.

The sentence "Men arrived today", however, (presumably) means "some specific men arrived today" rather than "men, as a general class, arrived today" (which would mean that there were no men before today). On the other hand, "I hate men" does mean "I hate men, as a general class" rather than "I hate some specific men".

As in many other cases, French has developed the farthest from Latin in its use of articles. In French, nearly all nouns, singular and plural, must be accompanied by an article (either indefinite, definite, or partitive) or demonstrative pronoun. Due to pervasive sound changes, most nouns are pronounced identically in the singular and plural, and there is often heavy homonymy between nouns and identically-pronounced words of other classes.

For example, all of the following are pronounced /s??/ : sain "healthy"; saint "saint, holy"; sein "breast"; ceins "(you) put on, gird"; ceint "(he) puts on, girds"; ceint "put on, girded"; and the equivalent noun and adjective plural forms sains, saints, seins, ceints . The article helps identify the noun forms saint or sein , and distinguish singular from plural; likewise, the mandatory subject of verbs helps identify the verb ceint . In more conservative Romance languages, neither articles nor subject pronouns are necessary, since all of the above words are pronounced differently. (In Italian, for example, the equivalents are sano, santo, seno, cingi, cinge, cinto, sani, santi, seni, cinti , where all vowels and consonants are pronounced as written, and ?s? and ?c? are clearly distinct from each other.)

Latin, at least originally, had a three-way distinction among demonstrative pronouns ( hic iste ille ) corresponding to first, second and third persons. Such a distinction is not reflected in modern English, but formerly existed as "this" vs. "that" vs. "yon(der)". In urban Latin of Rome, iste came to have a specifically derogatory meaning, but this innovation apparently did not reach the provinces and is not reflected in the modern Romance languages. A number of these languages still have such a three-way distinction, although hic has been lost and the other pronouns have shifted somewhat in meaning. For example, Spanish has este "this" vs. ese "that (near you)" vs. aquel (fem. aquella ) "that (over yonder)". The Spanish pronouns derive, respectively, from Latin iste ipse accu - ille , where accu- is an emphatic prefix derived from eccum "behold it!", possibly with influence from atque "and". [ 15 ]

Reinforced demonstratives such as accu - ille became necessary once ille came to be used as an article as well as a demonstrative. Such forms were often created even when not strictly needed to distinguish otherwise ambiguous forms. Italian, for example, has both questo "this" ( eccu - istum ) and quello "that" ( eccu - illum ), in addition to dialectal codesto "that (near you)" ( eccu-t?-istum ). French generally prefers forms derived from bare ecce "behold", as in the pronoun ce "this one/that one" (earlier ço , from ecce - hoc ) and the determiner ce/cet "this/that" (earlier cest , from ecce - istum ).

Reinforced forms are likewise common in locative adverbs (words such as English here and there ), based on related Latin forms such as hic "this" vs. h?c "here", h?c "this way", and ille "that" vs. ill?c "there", ill?c "that way". Here again French prefers bare ecce while Spanish and Italian prefer eccum (French ici "here" vs. Spanish aquí , Italian qui ). In western languages such as Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan, doublets and triplets arose such as Portuguese aqui, acá, cá "(to) here" ( accu - h?c , accu - h?c , eccu - h?c ). From these, a prefix a- was extracted, from which forms like "there (near you)" ( a-(i)bi ) and ali "there (over yonder)" ( a-(i)ll?c ) were created; compare Catalan neuter pronouns açò ( acce - hoc ) "this", això ( a-(i)psum - hoc ) "that (near you)", allò ( a-(i)llum - hoc ) "that (yonder)".

Subsequent changes often reduced the number of demonstrative distinctions. Standard Italian, for example, has only a two-way distinction "this" vs. "that", as in English, with second-person and third-person demonstratives combined. In Catalan, however, a former three-way distinction aquest, aqueix, aquell has recently been reduced differently, with first-person and second-person demonstratives combined. Hence aquest means either "this" or "that (near you)"; on the phone, aquest is used to refer both to speaker and addressee.

Old French had a similar distinction to Italian ( cist/cest vs. cil/cel ), both of which could function as either adjectives or pronouns. Modern French, however, has no distinction between "this" and "that": ce/cet, cette < cest, ceste is only an adjective, and celui, celle < cel lui, celle is only a pronoun, and both forms indifferently mean either "this" or "that". (The distinction between "this" and "that" can be made, if necessary, by adding the suffixes -ci "here" or -là "there", eg cette femme-ci "this woman" vs. cette femme-là "that woman", but this is rarely done except when specifically necessary to distinguish two entities from each other.)

[ edit ] Verbal morphology

Origin of Romance tenses
Latino Portugués Español Catalán Occitano Francés Retorrománico Italiano Rumano Sardo
Presente Indicativo Presente Indicativo
Present subjunctive Presente Indicativo
Imperfect indicative Imperfect indicative
Imperfect subjunctive Personal infinitive - - - - - - - Imperfect subjunctive /
Personal infinitive
Future indicative - eres ("you are") - - future of "to be"
in Old French
- - - -
Perfect indicative Pretérito Simple preterite (literary except in Valencian ) Pretérito Remote past (literary) - Remote past Simple past (literary except in the Oltenian dialect) In Old Sardinian ;
only traces in modern lang
Perfect subjunctive -
Pluperfect indicative Literary pluperfect Imperfect subjunctive ( -ra form) - Second conditional
in Old Occitan
Second preterite
in very early Old French
( Sequence of Saint Eulalia )
- - - -
Pluperfect subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Pluperfect indicative -
Future perfect Future subjunctive
(very much alive)
Future subjunctive
(moribund)
- possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Occitan
- - possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Italian
- -
New future infinitive-habeo voleo infinitive voleo infinitive
New conditional infinitive-habebam infinitive-habuisset infinitive-habuit habeo infinitive
(split apart from
infinitive-habeo
in 18th-century Romanian)
-
Preterite vs. present perfect
(in speech)
preterite only
(present perfect exists,
but has different meaning)
both both (but usually an analytic preterite
vado infinitive is used)
? present perfect only present perfect only present perfect only present perfect only present perfect only

Verbs have many conjugations , including in most languages:

  • A present tense , a preterite , an imperfect , a pluperfect , a future tense and a future perfect in the indicative mood, for statements of fact.
  • Present and preterite subjunctive tenses, for hypothetical or uncertain conditions. Several languages (for example, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish) have also imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives, although it is not unusual to have just one subjunctive equivalent for preterit and imperfect (eg no unique subjunctive equivalent in Italian of the so-called passato remoto ). Portuguese, and until recently Spanish, also have future and future perfect subjunctives, which have no equivalent in Latin.
  • An imperative mood, for direct commands.
  • Three non-finite forms : infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
  • Distinct active and passive voices, as well as an impersonal passive voice .
  • Note that, although these categories are largely inherited from Classical Latin, many of the forms are either newly constructed or inherited from different categories (eg the Romance imperfect subjunctive most commonly derives from the Latin pluperfect subjunctive, while the Romance pluperfect subjunctive derives from a new present perfect tense with the auxiliary verb placed in the imperfect subjunctive.

Several tenses and aspects, especially of the indicative mood, have been preserved with little change in most languages, as shown in the following table for the Latin verb d?cere (to say), and its descendants.

Infinitivo Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Presente Pretérito Imperfecto Presente Presente
Latino d?cere d?cit d?xit dic?bat d?cat/d?cet d?c
Aragonese dicir diz dició deciba/diciba diga diz
Asturiano dicir diz dixo dicía diga di
Catalan dir diu/dit digué/va dir/dit deia digui/diga digues
Emilian dîr dîs l'à détt / dgé dgeva dégga
Franco-Provençal d i re di djéve dij i sse/dzéze dète
Francés dire dit dit disait dise dis
Gallego dicir di dixo dicía diga di
Italiano dicere/dire dados Disse diceva dica
Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) dezir dize disho dezía diga dezí
Leonese dicire diz dixu dicía diga di
Milanese dis ha dit diseva diga
Mirandolese dir di? à dit dgiva diga
Neapolitan dicere dados dicette diceva diche dije
Occitan díser/dire ditz diguèt disiá diga diga
Picard dire dit - disoait diche -
Piedmontese dis dìsser 1 , l'ha dit disìa DISA dis
Portugués dizer diz Disse dizia diga diz 2
Rumano a zice, zicere 3 zice zise zicea zic? zi
Romansh dir di ha ditg discheva 4 de diámetro di
Sardinian nàrrere nàrat àt naradu naraìat nàrat nàras
Siciliano dìciri dici dissi dicìa dica 5 dici
Español decir dados dijo decía diga di
Venetian dir dise - disea diga dì/disi
Walloon dire dit a dit dijheut dixhe di
Basic meaning to say , dice he said he was saying , dice say [thou]
1 Until the 18th century.
2 With the disused variant dize .
3 long infinitive
4 In modern times, scheva .
5 Sicilian now uses imperfect subjunctive dicissi in place of present subjunctive.

The main tense and mood distinctions that were made in classical Latin are generally still present in the modern Romance languages, though many are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs. The passive voice, which was mostly synthetic in classical Latin, has been completely replaced with compound forms.

  • Owing to sound changes which made it homophonous with the preterite, the Latin future indicative tense was dropped, and replaced with a periphrasis of the form infinitive + present tense of hab?re (to have). Eventually, this structure was reanalysed as a new future tense .
  • In a similar process, an entirely new conditional form was created.
  • While the synthetic passive voice of classical Latin was abandoned in favour of periphrastic constructions, most of the active voice remained in use. However, several tenses have changed meaning, especially subjunctives. Por ejemplo:
    • The Latin pluperfect indicative became a conditional in Sicilian, and an imperfect subjunctive in Spanish.
    • The Latin pluperfect subjunctive developed into an imperfect subjunctive in all languages except Romansh , where it became a conditional, and Romanian, where it became a pluperfect indicative .
    • The Latin preterite subjunctive, together with the future perfect indicative, became a future subjunctive in Old Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician .
    • The Latin imperfect subjunctive became a personal infinitive in Portuguese and Galician.
  • Many Romance languages have two verbs "to be" . One is derived from Vulgar Latin * essere < Latin esse "to be" with an admixture of forms derived from sed?re "to sit", and is used mostly for essential attributes; the other is derived from st?re "to stand", and mostly used for temporary states. This development is most notable in Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan. In French and Italian, the derivative of st?re largely preserved an earlier meaning of "to stand/to stay", although in modern Italian, stare is used in a few constructions where English would use "to be", as in sto bene "I am well". In Old French , the derivatives of * essere and st?re were estre and ester , respectively. In modern French, estre persists as être "to be" while ester has been lost as a separate verb; but the former imperfect of ester is used as the modern imperfect of être (eg il était "he was"), replacing the irregular forms derived from Latin (eg ere(t), iere(t) < erat ). In Italian, the two verbs share the same past participle, stato . sed?re persists most notably in the future of * essere (eg Spanish/Portuguese/French/etc. ser- , Italian sar- ), although in Old French the future a direct derivation from Latin, eg (i)ert "he will be" < erit . See Romance copula , for further information.

For a more detailed illustration of how the verbs have changed with respect to classical Latin, see Romance verbs .

  • During the Renaissance , Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and a few other Romance languages developed a progressive aspect which did not exist in Latin. In French, progressive constructions remain very limited, the imperfect generally being preferred, as in Latin.
  • Many Romance languages now have a verbal construction analogous to the present perfect of English. In some, it has taken the place of the old preterite (at least in the vernacular); in others, the two coexist with somewhat different meanings (cf. English I did vs. I have done ). A few examples:
    • preterite only: Galician, Asturian, Sicilian, Leonese, Portuguese, some dialects of Spanish;
    • preterite and present perfect: Catalan, Occitan, standard Spanish;
    • present perfect predominant, preterite now literary: French, Romanian, several dialects of Italian and Spanish.
    • present perfect only: Romansh

Note that in Catalan , the synthetic preterite is predominantly a literary tense, except in Valencian ; but an analytic preterite (formed using an auxiliary vad? , which in other languages signals the future) persists in speech, with the same meaning. In Portuguese , a morphological present perfect does exist but has a different meaning (closer to "I have been doing"), and is rare in practice.

The following are common features of the Romance languages (inherited from Vulgar Latin ) that are different from Classical Latin:

  • Adjectives generally follow the noun they modify.
  • The normal clause structure is SVO , rather than SOV , and is much less flexible than in Latin.
  • Many Latin constructions involving nominalized verbal forms (eg the use of accusative plus infinitive in indirect discourse and the use of the ablative absolute ) were dropped in favor of constructions with subordinate clause. Exceptions can be found in Italian, for example, Latin tempore permittente > Italian tempo permettendo ; L. hoc facto > I. ciò fatto .

[ edit ] Lexicon

Préstamo

Vulgar Latin borrowed many words, often from Germanic languages , that replaced words from Classical Latin during the Migration Period , including some basic vocabulary. Notable examples are * blancus (white), which replaced Classical Latin albus in most major languages; * guerra (war), which replaced bellum ; and the words for the cardinal directions , where cognates of English "north", "south", "east" and "west" replaced the Classical Latin words borealis (or septentrionalis ), australis (or meridionalis ), orientalis , and occidentalis . (See History of French – The Franks .) Some Celtic words were incorporated into the basic vocabulary, partly for words with no Latin equivalent ( camisia "shirt", carrus "cart", cerevisia "beer"), but in some cases replacing Latin vocabulary ( cambi?re "to change", replacing m?t?re except in Portuguese; * pettia "piece", largely displacing pars (later resurrected) and eliminating frustum ). Many Greek words also entered the lexicon. eg spatha "sword" (replacing gladium , cf. French épée , Spanish espada , Italian spada ); cara "face" (partly replacing faci?s ); colpe "blow" (replacing ictus , cf. Spanish golpe , French coup ); cata "each" (replacing quisque ); common suffixes * -ij?re/-iz?re (French -iser , Spanish -ear/-izar , Italian -eggiare/-izzare , etc.), -ista .

Lexical replacement

Many basic nouns and verbs, especially those that were short and/or had irregular morphology, were replaced by longer derived forms with regular morphology. Nouns, and sometimes adjectives, were often replaced by diminutives : eg auris "ear" > auricula (orig. "little ear") > oricla (French oreille , Spanish oreja , etc.); avis "bird" > avicellus (orig. "little bird"; French oiseau ); vetus "old" > vetulus > veclus (French vieil , Spanish viejo , etc.). Sometimes augmentative constructions were used instead: piscis "fish" > * piscione (orig. "big fish") > French poisson . Verbs were often replaced by frequentative constructions: canere "to sing" > cant?re ; iacere "to throw" > iact?re > * iect?re (French jeter , Spanish echar , Italian gettare , etc.); iuv?re > adi?t?re (French aider , Spanish ayudar , Italian aiutare etc.); v?n?r? "hunt" > replaced by * capti?re "to hunt", frequentative of capere "to seize" (French chasser , Spanish cazar , Italian cacciare , etc.).

Many Classical Latin words came to be associated with "high culture" and were replaced by originally "low" terms: equus "horse" > caballus (orig. "nag"); domus "house" > casa (orig. "hut"); ignis "fire" > focus (orig. "hearth"); str?ta "street" > r?ga (orig. "furrow") or callis (orig. "footpath") (but str?ta remains in Italian). In some cases, terms from common occupations became generalized: inven?re "to find" > Ibero-Romance (f)affl?re (orig. "to sniff out", in hunting); adven?re "to arrive" > Ibero-Romance plic?re (orig. "to fold (sails)"), elsewhere arrip?re (orig. "to get to the river bank"). The same thing sometimes happened to religious terms, due to the pervasive influence of Christianity: loqu? "to speak" > parabol?re (orig. "to tell parables") or fabul?r? (orig. "to tell stories"), based on Jesus' way of speaking in parables .

Many Latin combining prefixes were incorporated in the lexicon as new roots and verb stems, eg Italian estrarre (to extract) from Latin ex- (out of) and trahere (to drag).

A number of common Latin words that have disappeared in many or most Romance languages have survived either in the periphery or in remote corners (especially Sardinia). For example, Latin caseum "cheese" survives in the eastern and western edges (Portuguese queijo , Spanish queso , Romanian ca? ), but in the central areas has been replaced by form?ticum , originally "formed (cheese)" (French fromage , Italian formaggio ); similarly (com)edere "to eat (up)", which survives as Spanish/Portuguese comer but elsewhere is replaced by mand?c?re , originally "to chew" (French manger , Italian mangiare , Romanian mânca ). In some cases, one language happens to preserve a word displaced elsewhere, eg Italian ogni "every" < omnem , displaced elsewhere by t?tum , originally "whole". Sardinian in particular preserves many words entirely lost elsewhere, eg emmo "yes" < immo "rather/yes/no", mannu "big" < magnum , [ 16 ] narare "to say" < narr?re "to tell", and domo "house" < ablative ] dom? "at home". Sardinian even preserves some words that were already archaic in Classical Latin, eg akina "grape" < acinam , pe?a "meat" < * pettiam .

Latinisms

During medieval times, large numbers of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin (so-called latinisms ), either in their original form ( learned words ) or in something approximating their original form ( semi-learned words ). These introduced many doublets , eg Latin fragilis > French fragile "fragile" (learned) and frêle "frail" (popular); Latin fabrica "craft, manufacture" > French fabrique "factory" (learned) and forge "forge" (popular), Spanish fábrica "factory" (learned) and fragua "forge" (popular); Latin l?g?lis "legal" > French légal "legal" (learned) and loyal "loyal" (popular), Spanish legal "legal" (learned) and leal "loyal" (popular); adv?c?tus "advocate" > French avocat "lawyer" (learned) and avoué "attorney, solicitor " (popular); Latin pol?re "to polish" > Portuguese polir "to polish" (learned) and puir "to wear thin" (popular). Sometimes triplets can be produced: Latin articulus "joint" > Portuguese artículo "(anatomical) articulation" (learned), artigo "article" (semi-learned), artelho "ankle" (popular; obsolete or dialectal). In many cases, the learned word simply displaced the original popular word, eg Spanish crudo "crude" ( Old Spanish cruo ); French légume "vegetable" ( Old French leüm ); Portuguese flor "flower" ( Old Portuguese chor ). The learned word always looks more like the original than the popular word does, since regular sound change has been bypassed; likewise, it usually has a meaning closer to the original.

Borrowing from Classical Latin has produced a large number of suffix doublets. Examples from Spanish (learned form first): -ción vs. -zon ; -cia vs. -za ; -ificar vs. -iguar ; -izar vs. -ear ; -mento vs. -miento ; -tud (< nominative -t?d? ) vs. -dumbre (< accusative -t?dine ); -ículo vs. -ejo ; etc. Similar examples can be found in all the other Romance languages.

This borrowing also introduced large numbers of classical prefixes in their original form ( dis- , ex- , post- ) and reinforced many others ( re- , popular Spanish/Portuguese des- < dis- , popular French dé- < dis- , popular Italian s- < ex- ). Many Greek prefixes and suffixes ( hellenisms ) also found their way into the lexicon: tele- , poli-/poly- , meta- , pseudo- , -scope/scopo , -logie/logia/logía , etc.

[ edit ] Sound changes

[ editar ] Consonantes

Significant sound changes affected the consonants of the Romance languages.

[ edit ] Apocope

There was a tendency to eliminate final consonants in Vulgar Latin, either by dropping them ( apocope ) or adding a vowel after them ( epenthesis ).

Many final consonants were rare, occurring only in certain prepositions (eg ad "towards", apud "at, near (a person)"), conjunctions ( sed "but"), demonstratives (eg illud "that (over there)", hoc "this"), and nominative singular noun forms, especially of neuter nouns (eg lac "milk", mel "honey", cor "heart"). Many of these prepositions and conjunctions were replaced by others, while the nouns were regularized into forms that avoided the final consonants (eg * lacte , * mele , * core ).

Final -m was dropped in Vulgar Latin. Even in Classical Latin , final -am , -um ( accusative endings ) was often elided in poetic meter , suggesting the m was weakly pronounced, probably marking the nasalisation of the vowel before it. This nasal vowel lost its nasalization in the Romance languages except in monosyllables, where it became /n/ (cf. Spanish quien < quem , French rien < rem ).

As a result, only the following final consonants occurred in Vulgar Latin:

  • Final -t in third-person singular verb forms, and -nt (often reduced to -n ) in third-person plural verb forms.
  • Final -s in a large number of morphological endings (verb endings -?s/-?s/-?s/-is , -mus , -tis ; nominative singular -us/-is ; plural -?s/-?s/-?s ) and certain other words ( tr?s "three", cr?s "tomorrow", etc.).
  • Final -n in some monosyllables (from earlier -m ), and where -nt reduced to -n .
  • Final -r , -d in some prepositions (eg ad , per ), which were proclitic forms that attached phonologically to the following word.
  • Very occasionally, final -c , eg Occitan oc "yes" < hoc (possibly protected by a final epenthetic vowel at one point).

Final -t was eventually dropped in many languages, although this often occurred several centuries after the Vulgar Latin period. For example, the reflex of -t was dropped in Old French and Old Spanish only around AD 1100. In Old French, this occurred only when a vowel still preceded the consonant. Hence venit "he comes" > Old French vient , and the /t/ was never dropped. (It survives to this day in liaison forms, eg vient-il? "is he coming?" /vj??ti(l)/ .)

In Italo-Romance and Eastern Romance , eventually all final consonants were either dropped or protected by an epenthetic vowel, except in clitic forms (eg prepositions con , per ). Modern Italian still has almost no consonant-final words, although Romanian has regained them through later loss of final /u/. For example, am?s "you love" > ame > ami ; amant "they love" > * aman > amano . On the evidence of "sloppily-written" Langobardic documents, however, the loss of final /s/ did not occur till the 7th or 8th century AD, after the Vulgar Latin period, and the presence of many former final consonants is betrayed by the syntactic gemination ( raddoppiamento sintattico ) that they trigger. It is also thought that /s/ became /j/ rather than simply disappearing: n?s > noi "we", s(ed)?s > sei "you are", cr?s > crai "tomorrow" (southern Italian). In unstressed syllables, the resulting diphthongs were simplified: am?c?s > /a?mikai/ > amiche /a?mike/ "(female) friends", where nominative am?cae should produce **amice rather than amiche (masculine am?c? > amici not **amichi ).

Central Western Romance languages eventually regained a large number of final consonants through the general loss of final /e/ and /o/, eg Catalan llet "milk" < lactem , foc "fire" < focum , peix "fish" < piscem . In French, most of these secondary final consonants were lost, but tertiary final consonants later arose through the loss of /?/ < -a . Hence masculine frigidum "cold" > Old French /froit/ > froid /f?wa/ , feminine frigidam > Old French /froid?/ > froide /f?wad/ .

[ edit ] Palatalization

Palatalization was one of the most important processes affecting consonants in Vulgar Latin. This eventually resulted in a whole series of " palatal " and/or postalveolar consonants in most Romance languages, eg Italian /?/, /?/, /t?/, /d?/, /ts/, /dz/, /?/, /?/ .

The following historical stages occurred:

Etapa Medio ambiente Consonants affected Resultado Languages affected
1 before /j/ (from -e,i- in hiatus ) /t/, /d/ /ts?/, /jj~dz?~dd??/ todo
2 all remaining, except labial consonants /tt??~tts?/ < -ky- , /jj~dd??/ < -gy- , /??/, /??/, /C?/ all except Sardinian
3 before /i/ /k/, /g/ /t??~ts?/, /j~d??/ all except Sardinian
4 before /e/ all except Sardinian and Dalmatian
5 before /a/ /t?~t??/, /d?~d??/ north-central Gallo-Romance (eg French , northern Occitan ); Rhaeto-Romance

Note how the environments become progressively less "palatal", and the languages affected become progressively fewer.

The outcomes of palatalization depended on the historical stage, the consonants involved, and the languages involved. The primary division is between the Western Romance languages , with /ts/ resulting from palatalization of /k/, and the remaining languages (Italo-Romance and Eastern Romance ) with /t?/ resulting. It is often suggested that /t?/ was the original result in all languages, with /t?/ > /ts/ a later innovation in the Western Romance languages. Evidence of this is the fact that Italian has both /tt?/ and /tts/ as outcomes of palatalization in different environments, while Western Romance has only /(t)ts/. Even more suggestive is the fact that Mozarabic , in southern Spain, had /t?/ as the outcome despite being in the "Western Romance" area and geographically disconnected from the remaining /t?/ areas; this suggests that Mozarabic was an outlying "relic" area where the change /t?/ > /ts/ failed to reach. (Northern French dialects, such as Norman and Picard , also had /t?/, but this may be a secondary development, ie due to a later sound change /ts/ > /t?/.) Note that /ts,dz,d?/ eventually became /s,z,?/ in most Western Romance languages. Thus Latin caelum (sky, heaven), pronounced [?kailu(m)] with an initial [k] , became Italian cielo [?t??lo] , Romanian cer [t?er] , Spanish cielo [??jelo] / [?sjelo] , French ciel [sj?l] , Catalan cel [?s??] , and Portuguese céu [?s?w] .

The outcome of palatalized /d/ and /g/ is less clear:

  • Original /j/ has the same outcome as palatalized /g/ everywhere.
  • Romanian fairly consistently has /z/ < /dz/ from palatalized /d/, but /d?/ from palatalized /g/.
  • Italian inconsistently has /ddz~dd?/ from palatalized /d/, and /dd?/ from palatalized /g/.
  • Most other languages have the same results for palatalized /d/ and /g/: consistent /d?/ initially, but either /j/ or /d?/ medially (depending on language and exact context). But Spanish has /j/ initially except before /o/, /u/; nearby Gascon is similar.

This suggests that palatalized /d/ > /d?/ > either /j/ or /dz/ depending on location, while palatalized /g/ > /j/; after this, /j/ > /(d)d?/ in most areas, but Spanish and Gascon (originating from isolated districts behind the western Pyrenees ) were relic areas unaffected by this change.

In French, the outcomes of /k/ palatalized by /e,i,j/ and by /a/ were different: centum "hundred" > cent /s??/ but cantum "song" > chant /???/ .

The original outcomes of palatalization must have continued to be phonetically palatalized even after they had developed into alveolar / postalveolar /etc. consonants. This is clear from French, where all originally palatalized consonants triggered the development of a following glide /j/ in certain circumstances (most visible in the endings -?re , -?tum/?tam ). In some cases this /j/ came from a consonant palatalized by an adjoining consonant after the late loss of a separating vowel. For example, mansi?n?tam > /mas?o?nata/ > mas??nada/ > /mas??n?æð?/ > early Old French maisnie?e /mais?ni?ð?/ "household". Similarly, medi?t?tem > /meje?tate/ > /mej?tade/ > /mej?tæðe/ > early Old French meitie? /mej?t???/ > modern French moitié /mwa?tje/ "half". In both cases, phonetic palatalization must have remained in primitive Old French at least through the time when unstressed intertonic vowels were lost (c. 8th century AD?), well after the fragmentation of the Romance languages.

The effect of palatalization is indicated in the writing systems of almost all Romance languages, where the letters ?cg? have the "hard" pronunciation [k ?] in most situations, but a "soft" pronunciation (eg French/Portuguese [s ?] , Italian/Romanian [t? d?] ) before ?eiy?. (Because Middle English was originally written by scribes speaking Norman French , the English spelling system has the same peculiarity.) This has the effect of keeping the modern spelling similar to the original Latin spelling, but complicates the relationship between sound and letter. In particular, the hard sounds must be written differently before ?eiy? (eg Italian ?ch gh?, Portuguese ?qu gu?), and likewise for the soft sounds when not before these letters (eg Italian ?ci gi?, Portuguese ?ç j?). Furthermore, in Spanish, Catalan, Occitan and Brazilian Portuguese, the use of ?u? to signal the hard pronunciation before ?eiy? means that a different spelling is also needed to signal the sounds /kw ?w/ before these letters (Spanish ?cu gü?, Catalan, Occitan and Brazilian Portuguese ?qü gü?). [ 17 ] This produces a number of orthographic alternations in verbs whose pronunciation is entirely regular. The following are examples of corresponding first-person plural indicative and subjunctive in a number of regular Portuguese verbs: marcamos marquemos "we mark"; caçamos cacemos "we hunt"; chegamos cheguemos "we arrive"; averiguamos averigüemos "we verify"; adequamos adeqüemos "we adapt"; oferecemos ofereçamos "we offer"; dirigimos dirijamos "we drive" erguemos ergamos "we raise"; delinquimos delincamos "we commit a crime".

[ edit ] Lenition

Stop consonants shifted by lenition in Vulgar Latin.

The voiced labial consonants /b/ and /w/ (represented by ?b? and ?v?, respectively) both developed a fricative [?] as an intervocalic allophone. [ 18 ] This is clear from the orthography; in medieval times, the spelling of a consonantal ?v? is often used for what had been a ?b? in Classical Latin, or the two spellings were used interchangeably. In many Romance languages (Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, etc.), this fricative later developed into a /v/ ; but in others (Spanish, Galician, some Catalan and Occitan dialects, etc.) reflexes of /b/ and /w/ simply merged into a single phoneme.

Several other consonants were "softened" in intervocalic position in Western Romance (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Northern Italian), but normally not phonemically in the rest of Italy, nor apparently at all in Romanian. The dividing line between the two sets of dialects is called the La Spezia-Rimini line and is one of the most important isoglosses of the Romance dialects. The changes (instances of diachronic lenition) are as follows:

Single voiceless plosives became voiced : -p-, -t-, -c- ? -b-, -d-, -g- . Subsequently, in some languages they were further weakened, either becoming fricatives or approximants , [??], [ð?], [??] (as in Spanish) or disappearing entirely (as /t/ and /k/ , but not /p/ , in French). The following example shows progressive weakening of original /t/: eg v?tam > Italian vita [?vita] , Portuguese vida [?vid?] (European Portuguese [?við?] ), Spanish vida [?biða] , French vie [vi] .

  • The voiced plosives /d/ and /?/ tended to disappear.
  • The plain sibilant -s- [s] was also voiced to [z] between vowels, although in many languages its spelling has not changed. (In Spanish, intervocalic [z] was later devoiced back to [s] .)
  • The double plosives became single: -pp-, -tt-, -cc-, -bb-, -dd-, -gg- ? -p-, -t-, -c-, -b-, -d-, -g- in most languages. In French spelling, double consonants are merely etymological.
  • The double sibilant -ss- [s?] also became phonetically single [s] , although in many languages its spelling has not changed.

Consonant length is no longer phonemically distinctive in most Romance languages. However some languages of Italy (Italian, Sardinian , Sicilian, and numerous other varieties of central and southern Italy) do have long consonants like /??/, /dd/, /bb/ , /kk/, /tt/, /pp/ , /ll/, /mm/, /nn/, /ss/, and to a lesser extent /rr/, etc., where the doubling indicates a short hold before the consonant is released, in many cases with distinctive lexical value: eg note /?n?.te/ (notes) vs. notte /?n?t.te/ (night), cade /?ka.de/ (s/he, it falls) vs. cadde /?kad.de/ (s/he, it fell). They may even occur at the beginning of words in Romanesco , Neapolitan and Sicilian, and are occasionally indicated in writing, eg Sicilian cchiù (more), and ccà (here). In general, the consonants /b/ , /ts/ , and /dz/ are long at the start of a word, while the archiphoneme |R| is realised as a trill /r/ in the same position.

A few languages have regained secondary geminate consonants. The double consonants of Piedmontese exist only after stressed /?/ , written ë , and are not etymological: vëdde (Latin vid?re , to see), sëcca (Latin sicca , dry, feminine of sech ). In standard Catalan and Occitan, there exists a geminate sound /l?/ written ?l (Catalan) or ll (Occitan), but it is usually pronounced as a simple sound in colloquial (and even some formal) speech in both languages.

[ edit ] Prosthesis

In Western Romance , an epenthetic or prosthetic vowel was inserted at the beginning of any word that began with /s/ and another consonant: spatha "sword" > Spanish/Portuguese espada , Catalan espasa , Old French espe?e > modern épée . In Italian, syllabification rules were preserved instead by vowel-final articles, thus feminine spada as la spada , but instead of rendering the masculine *il spaghetto , lo spaghetto came to be the norm. Though receding at present, Italian once had an epenthetic /i/ if a consonant preceded such clusters, so that 'in Switzerland' was in /i/ Svizzera . Some speakers still use the prosthetic /i/ , and it is fossilized in a few set phrases as per iscritto 'in writing'.

[ edit ] Stressed vowels

[ edit ] Loss of vowel length, reorientation

Evolution of the stressed vowels in early Romance
Clásico Proto-
Romance
Occidental
Romance
Balcánico
Romance
Sardo Sicilian
Acad. 1 Romano IPA Acad. 1 IPA IPA
î long i / I ? / /i/ [i(?)] yo / I / / I / / I /
? long y /y?/
i (?) short i /i/ [?] /?/ [?(?)] ? / E /
y (y?) short y / Y /
¢ long e /e?/ /e/ [e(?)] / E /
œ oe /oj/ > /e?/
e (?) short e /e/ [?] /?/ [?(?)] ? / ? / / ? /
æ ae /aj/ > [??]
â long a / Una ? / /a/ [a(?)] un / A /
a (?) short a / A /
o (?) short o /o/ [?] /?/ [?(?)] ? / ? / / O / / ? /
ò long o /o?/ /o/ [o(?)] O / O / / U /
au
(a few words)
au /aw/ > /o?/
u (?) short u /u/ [?] /?/ [?(?)] / U /
¾ long u / U ? / /u/ [u(?)] u / U /
au
(most words)
au / W / au / W /
1 Traditional academic transcription in Latin and Romance studies, respectively.

One profound change that affected Vulgar Latin was the reorganisation of its vowel system. Classical Latin had five short vowels, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? , and five long vowels , ?, ?, ?, ?, ? , each of which was an individual phoneme (see the table in the right, for their likely pronunciation in IPA), and four diphthongs , ae , oe , au and eu (five according to some authors, including ui ). There were also long and short versions of y , representing the rounded vowel /y(?)/ in Greek borrowings, which however probably came to be pronounced /i(?)/ even before Romance vowel changes started.

There is evidence that in the imperial period all the short vowels except a differed by quality as well as by length from their long counterparts. [ 19 ] So, for example ? was pronounced close-mid /e?/ while ? was pronounced open-mid /?/ , and ? was pronounced close /i?/ while ? was pronounced near-close /?/ .

During the Proto-Romance period, phonemic length distinctions were lost. Vowels came to be automatically pronounced long in stressed, open syllables (ie when followed by only one consonant), and pronounced short everywhere else. This situation is still maintained in modern Italian: cade [?ka?de] "he falls" vs. cadde [?kadde] "he fell".

The Proto-Romance loss of phonemic length originally produced a system with nine different quality distinctions in monophthongs, where only original /? ?/ had merged. Soon, however, many of these vowels coalesced:

  • The simplest outcome was in Sardinian , [ 20 ] where the former long and short vowels in Latin simply coalesced, eg /? ?/ > /e/ , /? ?/ > /i/ : This produced a simple five-vowel system /aeiou/ .
  • In most areas, however (technically, the Italo-Western languages ), the near-close vowels /? ?/ lowered and merged into the high-mid vowels /eo/ . As a result, Latin pira "pear" and v?ra "true", came to rhyme (eg Italian and Spanish pera, vera , and Old French poire, voire . Similarly, Latin nucem (from nux "nut") and v?cem (from v?x "voice") become Italian noce, voce , Portuguese noz, voz , and French noix, voix . This produced a seven-vowel system /a ? ei ? ou/ , still maintained in conservative languages such as Italian and Portuguese, and lightly transformed in Spanish (where /?/ > /je/, /?/ > /we/ ).
  • In the Eastern Romance languages (particularly, Romanian ), the front vowels /? ? ? ?/ evolved as in the majority of languages, but the back vowels /? ? ? ?/ evolved as in Sardinian. This produced an unbalanced six-vowel system: /a ? eiou/ . In modern Romanian, this system has been significantly transformed, with /?/ > /je/ and with new vowels /? ?/ evolving, leading to a balanced seven-vowel system with central as well as front and back vowels: /aei ? ? ou/ .
  • Sicilian is sometimes described as having its own distinct vowel system. In fact, Sicilian passed through the same developments as the main bulk of Italo-Western languages. Subsequently, however, high-mid vowels (but not low-mid vowels) were raised in all syllables, stressed and unstressed; ie /eo/ > /iu/ .

The Proto-Romance allophonic vowel-length system was rephonemicized in the Gallo-Romance languages as a result of the loss of many final vowels. Some northern Italian languages (eg Friulan ) still maintain this secondary phonemic length, but most languages dropped it by either diphthongizing or shortening the new long vowels.

French phonemicized a third vowel system around AD 1300 as a result of the sound change /VsC/ > /VhC/ > /V?C/ (where V is any vowel and C any consonant). This vowel length was eventually lost by around AD 1700, but the former long vowels are still marked with a circumflex. A fourth vowel length system, still non-phonemic, has now arisen: All nasal vowels as well as the oral vowels /? o ø/ (which mostly derive from former long vowels) are pronounced long in all stressed closed syllables , and all vowels are pronounced long in syllables closed by the voiced fricatives /vz ? ? v?/ . This system in turn has been phonemicized in some non-standard dialects (eg Haitian Creole ), as a result of the loss of final /?/ .

[ edit ] Latin diphthongs

The Latin diphthongs ae and oe , pronounced /ai/ and /oi/ in earlier Latin, were early on monophthongized.

ae became /??/ by the 1st century AD at the latest. Although this sound was still distinct from all existing vowels, the neutralization of Latin vowel length eventually caused its merger with /?/ < short e : eg caelum "sky" > French ciel , Spanish/Italian cielo , Portuguese céu /s?w/ , with the same vowel as in mele "honey" > French/Spanish miel , Italian miele , Portuguese mel /m?l/ . A few words show an early merger of ae with /e?/ , as in praeda > Gallo-Romance /pre?ða/ > French proie "prey" (vs. the expected form *priée ).

oe generally merged with /e?/ : poenam "pain" > Italo-Romance /pena/ > Spanish/Italian pena , French peine . There are relatively few such outcomes, since oe was rare in Classical Latin (most original instances had become Classical ? , as in Old Latin oinos "one" > Classical ?nus [ 21 ] ).

au merged with ? in the popular speech of Rome already by the 1st century BC. A number of authors remarked on this explicitly, eg Cicero 's taunt that the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher had changed his name from Claudius to ingratiate himself with the masses. This change never penetrated far from Rome, however, and the pronunciation /au/ was maintained for centuries in the vast majority of Latin-speaking areas, although it eventually developed into some variety of o in many languages. For example, Italian and French have /?/ , but this post-dates diphthongization and the French-specific palatalization /ka/ > /t?/ (hence causa > chose ). Spanish has /o/, but Portuguese spelling maintains ?ou?, only recently developed to /o/ (and still /ou/ in some dialects). Occitan, Romanian, southern Italian dialects, and many other minority Romance languages still have /au/. A few common words, however, show an early merger with ? , evidently reflecting a generalization of the popular Roman pronunciation: eg French queue , Italian coda /koda/ , Occitan coa , Romanian coad? (all meaning "tail") must all derive from c?da rather than Classical cauda . [ 22 ] Similarly, Portuguese orelha , Romanian ureche (both "ear") must derive from oricla rather than Classical auris , and the form oricla is in fact reflected in the Appendix Probi (but Occitan aurelha reflects auricla , possibly influenced by a reflex of auris ).

[ editar ] Evolución de la situación

[ edit ] Metaphony

An early process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees was metaphony (vowel mutation), conceptually similar to the umlaut process so characteristic of the Germanic languages . Depending on the language, certain stressed vowels were raised (or sometimes diphthongized) either by a final /i/ or /u/ or by a directly following /j/. Metaphony is most extensive in the Italo-Romance languages, and applies to nearly all languages in Italy; however, it is absent from Tuscan, and hence from standard Italian.

Raising-type metaphony in Servigliano , in the Marches of Italy
Unaffected Mutated
/?metto/ "I put" /?mitti/ "you put"
/?kwesto/ "this (neut.)" /?kwistu/ "this (masc.)"
/mo?d?sta/ "modest (fem.)" /mo?destu/ "modest (masc.)"
/?pr?doko/ "I preach" /?prediki/ "you preach"
/?fjore/ "flower" /?fjuri/ "flowers"
/?sposa/ "wife" /?spusu/ "husband"
/?m?re/ "he dies" /?mori/ "you die"
/?m??a/ "depressed (fem.)" /?mo?u/ "depressed (fem.)"
Diphthongization-type metaphony in Calvallo , in the Basilicata region of southern Italy
Unaffected Mutated
/?p?re/ "foot" /?pjeri/ "feet"
/?l?dd?e/ "light (fem.)" /?ljedd?i/ "light (masc.)"
/?p?n?o/ "I think" /?pjen?i/ "you think"
/?mese/ "month" /?misi/ "months"
/?mette/ "he puts" /?mitti/ "you put"
/?v?sko/ "woods" /?vwoski/ "woods (pl.)"
/??r?ssa/ "big (fem.)" /??rwossu "big (masc.)"
/?m?vo/ "I move" /?mwovi/ "you move"
/?kavrone/ "coal" /?kavruni/ "coals"
/?sola/ "alone (fem.)" /?sulu/ "alone (masc.)"
/?korre/ "he runs" /?kurri/ "you run"

Metaphony in the southern Italian languages (those to the south of Tuscany) is triggered by final /i/ and /u/. High-mid vowels /eo/ are raised to /iu/, and low-mid vowels /? ?/ are either raised to /eo/ or diphthongized to /je wo/ . Metaphony is not triggered by final /o/. The main occurrences of final /i/ are as follows:

  • The plural of nouns in -o (< nominative plural -? ).
  • The plural of nouns in -e (either a regular development of third-declension plural -?s , or from analogical plural -? ).
  • The second-person singular present tense (a regular development of -?s in verbs in -ere, -?re, -?re , and analogical in verbs in -?re ; in Old Italian , the regular ending -e is still found in -are verbs).
  • The first-person singular past indicative (< -? ).

The main occurrences of final /o/ are as follows:

  • The first-person singular present indicative (< -? ).
  • Masculine "mass" nouns, and "neuter" (mass-noun) demonstratives (disputed origin).

The main occurrence of final /u/ is in masculine "count" nouns (< -um ).

Metaphony in the northern Italian languages (those to the north of Tuscany) is triggered only by final /i/. In these languages, as in Tuscan, final /u/ was lowered to /o/; this evidently happened prior to the action of metaphony. In these languages, metaphony also tends to apply to final /a/, raising it to /?/ or /e/.

In most Italian languages, most final vowels have become obscured (in the south) or lost (in the north), and the effects of metaphony are often the only markers of masculine vs. feminine and singular vs. plural.

In some of the Astur-Leonese dialects, in northern Spain, the same distinction between final /o/ and /u/ exists (right down to the distinction between mass and count nouns), along with a very similar sort of metaphony triggered by final /u/. In these dialects, nouns with final /u/ have a plural in /os/ (< -?s ).

Sardinian likewise has a distinction between final /o/ and /u/ (again with plural /os/), along with metaphony. In the conservative Logudorese and Nuorese dialects, the result of metaphony is a non-phonemic alternation between [eo] (when final /i/ or /u/ occurs) and [? ?] (with other final vowels). In Campidanese , final /eo/ have been raised to /iu/, with the result that the metaphonic alternations have been phonemicized.

Raising of /?/ to /o/ by a following final /u/ occurs sporadically in Portuguese. Example: porcum, porc?s "pig, pigs" > PIR ?p?rku, ?p?rkos > Portuguese porco ?porku vs. porcos ?p?rkus ; novum, nov?s, novam, nov?s "new (masc., masc. pl., fem., fem. pl.)" > PIR ?n?vu, ?n?vos, ?n?va, ?n?vas > Portuguese novo ?novu vs. novos, nova, novas ?n?vus, ?n?va, ?n?vas . In this case, Old Portuguese apparently had /u/ in the singular vs. /os/ in the plural, despite the spelling ?-o -os?; a later development has raised plural /os/ to /us/. Unlike elsewhere, this development is only sporadic and only affects /?/ , not /?/ . Furthermore, the mass/count distinction is expressed very differently: Only a few "mass neuter" demonstratives exist, and they have a higher rather than lower vowel ( tudo "everything" vs. todo "all (masc.)", isto "this (neut.)" vs. este "this (masc.)"). In addition, the original pattern has been extended to some nouns originally in /o/, eg todo /o/ "all" vs. plural todos /?/ < t?tum, t?t?s .

In all of the Western Romance languages, metaphony was triggered by a final /i/ (especially of the first-person singular of the preterite ), raising mid-high stressed vowels to high vowels. (This does not normally occur in the nominative plural noun forms in Old French and Old Occitan that have a reflex of nominative plural /i/, suggesting that these developments were removed early by analogy.) Examples:

  • v?gint? > * vigint? > PIR /ve?enti/ > Italian venti ; but > pre-PWR /ve?inti/ > PWR /ve?inte/ > Old Spanish veínte (> modern veinte /bejnte/ ), Old Portuguese veínte (> viínte > modern vinte ), Old French vint (> modern vingt /v??/ ).
  • f?c?, f?cit > Italian feci, fece ; but > pre-PWR /?fedzi, ?fedzet/ > /?fidzi, ?fedzet/ > PWR /?fidze, ?fedzet/ > Old Spanish fize, fezo (modern hice, hizo ), Portuguese fiz, fez , Old French fis, fist (< *fis, feist ).

Romanian shows metaphony of the opposite sort, where final /a/ (and also /e/, especially in the case of /o/) caused a diphthongization /e/ > /ea/, /je/ > /ja/, /o/ > /oa/: c?ram "wax" > cear? ; equam "mare" > /*?pa/ > /*jepa/ > iap? ; fl?rem "flower" > floare ; nostrum, nostr?, nostram, nostr?s "our (masc. sg., masc. pl., fem. sg., fem. pl.)" > /*nostru, nostri, nostra, nostre/ > nostru, no?tri, noastr?, noastre .

[ edit ] Diphthongization

A number of languages diphthongized some of the free vowels, especially the low-mid vowels /? ?/ :

  • Spanish consistently diphthongized all low-mid vowels /? ?/ > /je we/ except for before certain palatal consonants (which raised the vowels to high-mid before diphthongization took place).
  • Romanian similarly diphthongized /?/ to /je/ (the corresponding vowel /?/ did not develop from Proto-Romance).
  • Italian diphthongized /?/ >/j?/ and /?/ >/w?/ in open syllables (in the situations where vowels were lengthened in Proto-Romance).
  • French similarly diphthongized /? ?/ in open syllables (when lengthened), along with /aeo/ : /a? ?? e? ?? o?/ > /ae ie ei uo ou/ > OF /e je oi we eu/ > modern /e je wa œ œ/ .
  • French also diphthongized /? ?/ before palatalized consonants, especially /j/. Further development was as follows: /?j/ > /iej/ > /i/ ; /?j/ > /uoj/ > early OF /uj/ > modern /?i/.
  • Catalan dipthongized /? ?/ before /j/ from palatalized consonants, just like French, with similar results: /?j/ > /i/ , /?j/ > /uj/ .

These diphthongizations had the effect of reducing or eliminating the distinctions between low-mid and high-mid vowels in many languages. In Spanish and Romanian, all low-mid vowels were diphthongized, and the distinction disappeared entirely. Portuguese is the most conservative in this respect, keeping the seven-vowel system more or less unchanged (but with changes in particular circumstances, eg due to metaphony , as described above). Other than before palatalized consonants, Catalan keeps /? o/ intact, but /? e/ split in a complex fashion into /? e ?/ and then coalesced again in the standard dialect ( Eastern Catalan ) in such a way that most original /? e/ have reversed their quality to become /e ?/ .

In French and Italian, the distinction between low-mid and high-mid vowels occurred only in closed syllables. Standard Italian more or less maintains this. In French, /e/ and /?/ merged by the 12th century or so, and the distinction between /?/ and /o/ was eliminated without merging by the sound changes /u/ > /y/ , /o/> /u/ . Generally this led to a situation where both [e,o] and [?,?] occur allophonically, with the high-mid vowels in open syllables and the low-mid vowels in closed syllables . This is still the situation in modern Spanish, for example. In French, however, both [e/?] and [o/?] were partly rephonemicized: Both /e/ and /?/ occur in open syllables as a result of /aj/ > /?/ , and both /o/ and /?/ occur in closed syllables as a result of /al/ > /au/ > /o/ .

French also had numerous falling diphthongs from a /j/ spit out before a palatalized sound, including any sound that underwent any of the palatalization processes in Proto-Romance or later: eg pacem "peace" > PWR *pad?z?e > OF paiz /paits/; punctum "point" > PWR *ponjt?o > *po?t?o > OF point . During the Old French period, /l/ before a consonant vocalized to /w/, producing many new falling diphthongs: eg dulcem "sweet" > PWR *dolt?s?e > OF dolz > douz /douts/; fallit "it lacks" > OF falt > faut "it is necessary"; bellum "beautiful" > OF beau /b?aw/ . By the end of the Middle French period, all of these falling diphthongs disappeared and were replaced by either monophthongs or rising diphthongs: proto OF /aj ?j j?j ej jej w?j oj uj al ?l el il ?l ol ul/ > early OF /aj ?j i ej yj oj yj aw ?aw ew i ?w ow y/ > modern spelling ?ai ei i oi ui oi ui au eau eu i ou ou u? > modern French /? ? i wa ?i wa ?i oo ø iuuy/ .

[ editar ] Nasalization

In both French and Portuguese, nasal vowels eventually developed from sequences of a vowel followed by a nasal consonant (/m/ or /n/). Originally, all vowels in both languages were nasalized before any nasal consonants, and nasal consonants not immediately followed by a vowel were eventually dropped. In French, nasal vowels before remaining nasal consonants were subsequently denasalized, but not before causing the vowels to lower somewhat, eg d?nat "he gives" > OF dune /dun?/ > donne /d?n/ , f?minam > femme /fam/ . Other vowels remained diphthongized, and were dramatically lowered: f?nem "end" > fin /f??/ (often pronounced [fæ?] ); linguam "tongue" > langue /l???/ ; ?num "one" > un /œ?/,/??/ .

In Portuguese, /n/ between vowels was dropped, and the resulting hiatus eliminated through vowel contraction of various sorts, often producing diphthongs: manum, *man?s > PWR * manu, ?manos "hand(s)" > mão, mãos /m??w?, m??w?s/ ; canem, can?s "dog(s)" > PWR * kane, ?kanes > * can, ?canes > cão, cães /k??w?, k??j?s/ ; rati?nem, rati?n?s "reason(s)" > PWR * ra?d?z?one, ra?d?z?ones > * ra?dzon, ra?dzones > razão, razões /?a?z??w?, ?a?zõj?s/ (Brazil), /?a?z???, ???zõj?s/ (Portugal). Sometimes the nasalization was eliminated: l?na "moon" > Old Portuguese l?a > lua ; v?na "vein" > Old Portuguese v?a > veia . Nasal vowels that remained actually tend to be raised (rather than lowered, as in French): f?nem "end" > fim /f?/ ; centum "hundred" > PWR t?s??nto > cento /?s?tu/ ; pontem "bridge" > PWR p?nte > ponte /?põt?i/ (Brazil), /?põt?/ (Portugal). In Portugal, vowels before a nasal consonant have become denasalized, but in Brazil they remain heavily nasalized.

[ edit ] Front-rounded vowels

Characteristic of the Gallo-Romance languages and Rhaeto-Romance languages are the front rounded vowels /y ø œ/ . All of these languages show an unconditional change /u/ > /y/, eg l?nam > French lune /lyn/ , Occitan /?lyno/ . Many of the languages in Switzerland and Italy show the further change /y/ > /i/. Also very common is some variation of the French development /?? o?/ (lengthened in open syllables ) > /we ew/ > /œ œ/ , with mid back vowels diphthongizing in some circumstances and then re-monophthongizing into mid-front rounded vowels. (French has both /ø/ and /œ/ , with /ø/ developing from /œ/ in certain circumstances.)

[ edit ] Unstressed vowels

Evolution of unstressed vowels in early Italo-Western Romance
Latino Proto-
Romance
Subrayó Non-final
unstressed
Final-unstressed
Original Later
Italo-
Romance
Later
Western-
Romance
Gallo-
Romance
Primitivo
Francés
IPA Acad. 1 IPA IPA
a,? / A / un / A / / A / / ? /
e,ae / ? / ? / ? / / E / / E / / E / ?; /e/ (prop) ?; /?/ (prop)
?,oe / E / ? / E /
i,y / ? /
?,? / I / yo / I / / I /
o / ? / ? / ? / / O / / O / / O /
?,(au) / O / O / O /
u / ? / / U /
¾ / U / u / U /
au
(most words)
/ W / au / W / N / A
1 Traditional academic transcription in Romance studies.

There was more variability in the result of the unstressed vowels. Originally in Proto-Romance, the same nine vowels developed in unstressed as stressed syllables, and in Sardinian, they coalesced into the same five vowels in the same way.

In Italo-Western Romance, however, vowels in unstressed syllables were significantly different from stressed vowels, with yet a third outcome for final unstressed syllables. In non-final unstressed syllables, the seven-vowel system of stressed syllables developed, but then the low-mid vowels /? ?/ merged into the high-mid vowels /eo/ . This system is still preserved, largely or completely, in all of the conservative Romance languages (eg Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan).

In final unstressed syllables, results were somewhat complex. One of the more difficult issues is the development of final short -u , which appears to have been raised to /u/ rather than lowered to /o/ , as happened in all other syllables. However, it is possible that in reality, final /u/ comes from long * -? < -um , where original final -m caused vowel lengthening as well as nasalization. Evidence of this comes from Rhaeto-Romance , in particular Sursilvan , which preserves reflexes of both final -us and -um , and where the latter, but not the former, triggers metaphony (see above). This suggests the development -us > /?s/ > /os/ , but -um > /??/ > /u/ . [ 23 ]

Examples of evolution of final unstressed vowels
Inglés Latino Proto-Italo-Western Conservative
Del centro de Italia
Italiano Español Catalán El francés antiguo
one (fem.) ?nam UNA UNA UNA UNA UNA une
door portam porta porta porta puerta porta porte
siete septem sette sette sette siete establecer establecer
mar mare yegua yegua yegua Mar Mar mer
paz p?cem paso paso paso Paz paç paiz
parte partem instancia de parte instancia de parte instancia de parte instancia de parte parte parte
madre m?trem matre matre madre madre yegua me?re
twenty v?gint? veenti vinti venti veinte vint vint
cuatro quattuor quattro quattro quattro Cuatro quatre quatre
ocho oct? octo ?tto Otto ocho vuit huit
cuando quand? quando quando quando CUANDO quan quant
cuarto quartum quartu quartu quarto cuarto quart quart
one (masc.) ?num unu unu UNO UNO Naciones Unidas Naciones Unidas
puerto portum portu portu porto Puerto puerto puerto

The original five-vowel system in final unstressed syllables was preserved as-is in some of the more conservative central Italian languages, but in most languages there was further coalescence:

  • In Tuscan (including standard Italian), final /u/ merged into /o/.
  • In the Western Romance languages , final /i/ eventually merged into /e/ (although final /i/ triggered metaphony before that). Conservative languages like Spanish largely maintain that system, but drop final /e/ after certain single consonants, eg /r/, /l/, /n/, /d/, /z/ (< palatalized c ).
  • In the Gallo-Romance languages (part of Western Romance), final /o/ and /e/ were dropped entirely unless that produced an impossible final cluster (eg /tr/), in which case a "prop vowel" /e/ was added. This left only two final vowels: /a/ and prop vowel /e/. Catalan preserves this system.
  • In primitive Old French (one of the Gallo-Romance languages ), these two remaining vowels merged into /?/ .

Various later changes happened in individual languages, eg:

  • In French, most final consonants were dropped, and then final /?/ was also dropped. The /?/ is still preserved in spelling as a final silent -e , whose main purpose is to signal that the previous consonant is pronounced, eg port "port" /p??/ vs. porte "door" /p??t/ . These changes also eliminated the difference between singular and plural in most words: ports "ports" (still /p??/ ), portes "doors" (still /p??t/ ). Final consonants reappear in liaison contexts (in close connection with a following vowel-initial word), eg nous /nu/ "we" vs. nous avons /nuz-a?v??/ "we have", il fait /il f?/ "he does" vs. fait-il?" /f?t-il/ "does he?".
  • In Catalan, final unstressed /as/ > /es/.
  • In Portuguese, final unstressed /o/ and /u/ were apparently preserved intact for a while, since final unstressed /u/, but not /o/ or /os/, triggered metaphony (see above). Final-syllable unstressed /o/ was raised in preliterary times to /u/, but always still written ?o?. At some point (perhaps in late Old Portuguese ), final-syllable unstressed /e/ was raised to /i/ (but still written ?e?); this remains in Brazilian Portuguese , but has developed to /?/ in European Portuguese .

[ edit ] Intertonic vowels

The so-called intertonic vowels are those unstressed vowels not either initial or final, ie those vowels that are between the initial or final syllable and the tonic (ie stressed) syllable, hence intertonic. Intertonic vowels were the most subject to loss or modification. Already in Vulgar Latin, intertonic vowels between a single consonant and a following /r/ or /l/ tended to drop: vetulum "old" > veclum > Italian vecchio , French vieil , Spanish viejo , Portuguese velho . But many languages ultimately dropped almost all intertonic vowels.

Generally, those languages south and east of the La Spezia-Rimini line (Romanian and southern Italian) maintained intertonic vowels, while those to the north and west (Western Romance) dropped all except /a/. Standard Italian generally maintained intertonic vowels, but typically raised unstressed /e/ > /i/. Ejemplos:

  • septim?nam "week" > Italian settimana , Romanian s?pt?mân? but Spanish/Portuguese semana , French semaine , Catalan setmana
  • quattuordecim "fourteen" > Italian quattordici , but Spanish catorce , Portuguese/French quatorze
  • * metipsimum > * medisimum > Italian medesimo but Spanish mismo , Portuguese mesmo , Old French me?esme > French même
  • * bonit?tem > Italian bonità or bontà , Romanian bun?tate but Spanish bondad , Portuguese bondade , Old French bonté
  • colloc?re "to place" > Spanish colgar "to hang", French coucher "to lie (down), sleep"
  • comm?nic?re "to take communion" > Romanian cuminecare but Portuguese comungar , Spanish comulgar , Old French comungier
  • carric?re "to carry (in a chariot)" > Spanish cargar "to load", French charger "to load"
  • fabricam "forge" > /*fawr?a/ > Spanish fragua , Portuguese forjar/fabricar , French forge
  • disj?j?n?re "to breakfast" > Old French disner > French dîner "to dine" (but disj?j?nat > Old French desjune "he dines" > French (il) déjeune "he eats lunch")
  • adj?t?re "to help" > Italian aiutare , Romanian ajuta but French aider (Spanish ayudar , Portuguese ajudar based on stressed forms, eg ayuda/ajuda "he helps"; cf. Old French aidier "to help" vs. aiue "he helps")

Portuguese is more conservative in maintaining some intertonic vowels other than /a/: eg * offer?scere "to offer" > Portuguese oferecer vs. Spanish ofrecer , French offrir (< * offer?re ); -?bilem > Italian -evole , Portuguese -ável vs. Spanish/French -able . French, on the other hand, drops even intertonic /a/ after the stress: stephanum > Spanish Estévan but Old French Estievne > French Étienne . Many cases of /a/ before the stress also ultimately dropped in French: sacramentum "sacrament" > Old French sairement > French serment "oath".

[ editar ] Los sistemas de escritura

The Romance languages for the most part have kept the writing system of Latin, adapting it to their evolution. One exception was Romanian before the 19th century, where, after the Roman retreat, literacy was reintroduced through the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet , a Slavic influence. A Cyrillic alphabet was also used for Romanian (Moldovan) in the USSR . The non-Christian populations of Spain also used the scripts of their religions ( Arabic and Hebrew ) to write Romance languages such as Ladino and Mozarabic in aljamiado .

[ edit ] Letters

Spelling of results of palatalization and related sounds
Sonido Español Portugués Francés Italiano Rumano
/k/, not + ?e, i, y? ?c?
/k/ + ?e, i, y? ?qu? ?ch?
palatalized /k/ (/t?/~/s/~/?/), + ?e, i, y? ?c?
palatalized /k/ (/t?/~/s/~/?/), not + ?e, i, y? ?z? ?ç? ?ci?
/kw/, not + ?e, i, y? ?qu?
/kw/ + ?e, i, y? ?cu? ?qu? [ 24 ]
/g/, not + ?e, i, y? ?g?
/g/ + ?e, i, y? ?gu? ?gh?
palatalized /g/ (/d?/~/?/~/x/), + ?e, i, y? ?g?
palatalized /g/ (/d?/~/?/~/x/), not + ?e, i, y? ?j? ?gi?
/gw/, not + ?e ,i, y? ?gu?
/gw/ +?e, i, y? ?gü? ?gu? [ 25 ]
(former) /?/ ?ll? ?lh? ?il(l)? ?gli? -
/?/ ?ñ? ?nh? ?gn? -

The Romance languages are written with the classical Latin alphabet of 23 letters – A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I , K , L , M , N , O , P , Q , R , S , T , V , X , Y , Z – subsequently modified and augmented in various ways. In particular, the single Latin letter V split into V (consonant) and U (vowel), and the letter I split into I and J . The Latin letter K and the new letter W , which came to be widely used in Germanic languages, are seldom used in most Romance languages – mostly for unassimilated foreign names and words.

While most of the 23 basic Latin letters have maintained their phonetic value, for some of them it has diverged considerably; and the new letters added since the Middle Ages have been put to different uses in different scripts. Some letters, notably H and Q , have been variously combined in digraphs or trigraphs (see below) to represent phonetic phenomena that could not be recorded with the basic Latin alphabet, or to get around previously established spelling conventions. Most languages added auxiliary marks ( diacritics ) to some letters, for these and other purposes.

The spelling rules of most Romance languages are fairly simple, but subject to considerable regional variation. The letters with most conspicuous phonetic variations, between Romance languages or with respect to Latin, are

B : May alternate in pronunciation with v , for example in some variants of Spanish.
C : Generally a "hard" [k] , but "soft" ( fricative or affricate ) before e , i , or y .
G : Generally a "hard" [?] , but "soft" (fricative or affricate) before e , i , or y . In some languages, like Spanish, the hard g is pronounced as a fricative [?] after vowels. In Romansch, the soft g is a voiced palatal plosive [?] or a voiced alveolo-palatal affricate [d?] .
H : Silent in most languages; used to form various digraphs . But represents [h] in Romanian, Walloon and Gascon Occitan.
J : Represents a fricative in most languages, or the palatal approximant [j] in Romansh and in several of the languages of Italy. Italian does not use this letter in native words. Usually pronounced like the soft g (except in Romansch and the languages of Italy).
Q : As in Latin, its phonetic value is that of a hard c , and in native words it is always followed by a (sometimes silent) u . Romanian does not use this letter in native words.
S : Generally voiceless [s] , but voiced [z] between vowels in most languages. In Spanish, Romanian, Galician and several varieties of Italian, however, it is always pronounced voiceless. At the end of syllables, it may represent special allophonic pronunciations. In Romansh, it also stands for a voiceless or voiced fricative, [?] or [?] , before certain consonants.
W : No Romance language uses this letter in native words, with the exception of Walloon .
X : Its pronunciation is rather variable, both between and within languages. In the Middle Ages, the languages of Iberia used this letter to denote the voiceless postalveolar fricative [?] , which is still the case in Modern Catalan and Portuguese . With the Renaissance the classical pronunciation [ks] – or similar consonant clusters , such as [?z] , [?s] , or [k?] – were frequently reintroduced in latinisms and hellenisms. In Venetian it represents [z] , and in Ligurian the voiced postalveolar fricative [?] . Italian does not use this letter in native words.
Y : This letter is not used in most languages, with the prominent exceptions of French and Spanish, where it represents [j] before vowels (or various similar fricatives such as the palatal fricative [?] , in Spanish), and the vowel or semivowel [i] elsewhere.
Z : In most languages it represents the sound [z] , but in Italian it denotes the affricates [dz] and [ts] (which, although not normally in contrast, are usually strictly assigned lexically in any single variety: Standard Italian gazza 'magpie' always with [ddz] , mazza 'club, mace' only with [tts] ), in Romansh the voiceless affricate [ts] , and in Galician and Spanish it denotes either the voiceless dental fricative [?] or [s] .

Otherwise, letters that are not combined as digraphs generally have the same sounds as in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), whose design was, in fact, greatly influenced by the Romance spelling systems.

[ edit ] Digraphs and trigraphs

Since most Romance languages have more sounds than can be accommodated in the Roman Latin alphabet they all resort to the use of digraphs and trigraphs – combinations of two or three letters with a single sound value. The concept (but not the actual combinations) derives from Classical Latin; which used, for example, TH , PH , and CH when transliterating the Greek letters "?", "?" (later "?"), and "?". These were once aspirated sounds in Greek before changing to corresponding fricatives, and the H represented what sounded to the Romans like an /?/ following /t/ , /p/ , and /k/ respectively. Some of the digraphs used in modern scripts are:

CI : used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romanian to represent /t?/ before A , O , or U .
CH : used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, Romanian, Romansh and Sardinian to represent /k/ before E or I ; /t?/ in Occitan , Spanish, Astur-leonese and Galician; [c] or [t?] in Romansh before A , O or U ; and /?/ in most other languages. In Catalan it is used in some old spelling conventions for /k/ .
DD : used in Sicilian and Sardinian to represent the voiced retroflex plosive /?/ . In recent history more accurately transcribed as DDH .
DJ : used in Walloon and Catalan for /d?/ .
GI : used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romanian to represent /d?/ before A , O , or U , and in Romansh to represent [?i] or /d?i/ or (before A , E , O , and U ) [?] or /d?/
GH : used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, Romanian, Romansh and Sardinian to represent /?/ before E or I , and in Galician for the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /?/ (not standard sound).
GL : used in Romansh before consonants and I and at the end of words for /?/ .
GLI : used in Italian and Romansh for /?/ .
GN : used in French, Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romansh for /?/ , as in champignon or gnocchi .
GU : used before E or I to represent /?/ or /?/ in all Romance languages except Italian, Romance languages in Italy, Romansh, and Romanian (which use GH instead).
IG : used at the end of word in Catalan for /t?/ , as in maig , safareig or enmig .
IX : used between vowels or at the end of word in Catalan for /?/ , as in caixa or calaix .
LH : used in Portuguese and Occitan /?/ .
LL : used in Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Astur-leonese, Norman and Dgèrnésiais, originally for /?/ which has merged in some cases with /j/ . Represents /l/ in French unless it follows I ( i ) when it represents /j/ (or /?/ in some dialects). It's used in Occitan for a long /ll/
L·L : used in Catalan for a geminate consonant [??] .
NH : used in Portuguese and Occitan for /?/ , used in official Galician for /?/ .
N- : used in Piedmontese and Ligurian for /?/ between two vowels.
NN : used in Leonese for /?/ ,
NY : used in Catalan for /?/ .
QU : represents [kw] in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, and Romansh; [k] in French, Astur-leonese and Spanish (normally before e or i ); [k] (before e or i ) or [kw] (normally before a or o ) in Occitan, Catalan and Portuguese.
RR : used between vowels in several languages (Occitan, Catalan, Spanish...) to denote a trilled /r/ or a guttural R , instead of the flap /?/ .
SC : used before E or I in Italian and Romance languages in Italy for /?/ , and in French, Portuguese, Catalan and American Spanish as /s/ in words of certain etymology (notice this would be /?/ in standard peninsular Spanish)
SCH : used in Romansh for [?] or [?] .
SCI : used in Italian and Romance languages in Italy to represent /?/ before A , O , or U .
SH : used in Aranese Occitan for /?/ .
SS : used in French, Portuguese, Piedmontese, Romansh, Occitan, and Catalan for /s/ between vowels.
TS : used in Catalan for /ts/ .
TG : used in Romansh for [c] or [t?] . In Catalan is used for /d?/ before E and I , as in metge or fetge .
TH : used in Jèrriais for /?/ ; used in Aranese for either /t/ or /t?/ .
TJ : used between vowels and before A , O or U , in Catalan for /d?/ , as in sotjar or mitjó .
TSCH : used in Romansh for [t?] .
TX : used at the beginning or at the end of word or between vowels in Catalan for /t?/ , as in txec , esquitx or atxa .
TZ : used in Catalan for /dz/ .

While the digraphs CH , PH , RH and TH were at one time used in many words of Greek origin, most languages have now replaced them with C/QU , F , R and T . Only French has kept these etymological spellings, which now represent /k/ or /?/ , /f/ , /?/ and /t/ , respectively.

[ edit ] Double consonants

Gemination , in the languages where it occurs, is usually indicated by doubling the consonant, except when it does not contrast phonemically with the corresponding short consonant, in which case gemination is not indicated. In Jèrriais , long consonants are marked with an apostrophe: S'S is a long /zz/ , SS'S is a long /ss/ , and T'T is a long /tt/ . Phonemic contrast of geminates vs. single consonants is widespread in Italian , and normally indicated in the traditional orthography: fatto /fatto/ 'done' vs. fato /fato/ 'fate, destiny'; cadde /kadde/ 's/he, it fell' vs. cade /kade/ 's/he, it falls'. The double consonants in French orthography, however, are merely etymological. In Catalan, the gemination of the l is marked by a punt volat = flying pointl·l .

[ editar ] diacríticos

Romance languages also introduced various marks ( diacritics ) that may be attached to some letters, for various purposes. In some cases, diacritics are used as an alternative to digraphs and trigraphs; namely to represent a larger number of sounds than would be possible with the basic alphabet, or to distinguish between sounds that were previously written the same. Diacritics are also used to mark word stress, to indicate exceptional pronunciation of letters in certain words, and to distinguish words with same pronunciation ( homophones ).

Depending on the language, some letter-diacritic combinations may be considered distinct letters, eg for the purposes of lexical sorting . This is the case, for example, of Romanian ? ( [?] ) and Spanish ñ ( [?] ).

The following are the most common use of diacritics in Romance languages.

  • Vowel quality : the system of marking close-mid vowels with an acute, é , and open-mid vowels with a grave accent, è , is widely used (in Catalan, French, Italian, etc.) Portuguese, however, uses the circumflex ( ê ) for the former, and the acute ( é ), for the latter.
  • Nasality : Portuguese marks nasal vowels with a tilde ( ã ) when they occur before other written vowels and in some other instances. While not frequent among the other Romance languages, the use of this symbol generally to indicate nasality has been incorporated in the orthographies of many South American indigenous languages ( Guarani is an example).
  • Palatalization : some historical palatalizations are indicated with the cedilla ( ç ) in French, Catalan, Occitan and Portuguese. In Spanish and several other world languages influenced by it, the grapheme ñ represents a palatal nasal consonant. In Romanian some palatalized consonants are indicated with i [?] , same as Russian do with "e" and "?".
  • Diaeresis : when a vowel and another letter that would normally be combined into a digraph with a single sound are exceptionally pronounced apart, this is often indicated with a diaeresis mark on the vowel. In the Spanish word pingüino (penguin), the letter u is pronounced, although normally it is silent in the digraph gu when this is followed by an e or an i . Other Romance languages that use the diaeresis in this fashion are French, Catalan and Occitan. Brazilian Portuguese is no longer adopting diaeresis since its last orthographic reform of 2009. Some North-Italian languages use the Diaeresis to mark vowel quality: Piedmontese ë is pronounced [?], ä and ö are used in Emilian-Romagnol and Ligurian .
  • Stress : the stressed vowel in a polysyllabic word may be indicated with the acute , é (in Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan), or the grave accent , è (Italian, Catalan, Romansh). The orthographies of French and Romanian do not mark stress. In Italian and Romansh orthography, indicating stress with a diacritic is only required when it falls on the last syllable of a word.
  • Homophones : words that are pronounced exactly or nearly the same way, but have different meanings, can be differentiated by a diacritic. An acute accent , for example, is used in Spanish to distinguish si ("if") from ("yes"), and in Catalan to distinguish os ("bone") from ós ("bear"). A grave accent is used in French to distinguish ou ("or") from ("where"); in Italian and Romansh to distinguish e ("and") from è ("is"); and in Catalan to distinguish ("hand") from ma ("my"). The circumflex can also have this function in French, sometimes. Often, such words are monosyllables , the accented one being phonetically stressed , while the unaccented one is a clitic ; examples are the Spanish clitics de , se , and te (a preposition and two personal pronouns), versus the stressed words , , and (two verbs and a noun).

Less widespread diacritics in the Romance languages are the breve (in Romanian, ? ) and the ring (in Wallon and the Bolognese dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo , å ). The French orthography includes the etymological ligatures œ and (more rarely) æ . The use of the circumflex in French is partly etymological as well.

[ edit ] Upper and lower case

Most languages are written with a mixture of two distinct but phonetically identical variants or " cases " of the alphabet: majuscule ("uppercase" or "capital letters"), derived from Roman stone-carved letter shapes, and minuscule ("lowercase"), derived from Carolingian writing and Medieval quill pen handwriting which were later adapted by printers in the 15th and 16th centuries.

In particular, all Romance languages presently capitalize (use uppercase for the first letter of) the following words: the first word of each complete sentence , most words in names of people, places, and organizations, and most words in titles of books. The Romance languages do not follow the German practice of capitalizing all nouns including common ones. Unlike English, the names of months, days of the weeks, and derivatives of proper nouns are usually not capitalized: thus, in Italian one capitalizes Francia ("France") and Francesco ("Francis"), but not francese ("French") or francescano ("Franciscan"). However, each language has some exceptions to this general rule.

[ edit ] Vocabulary comparison

The tables below provide a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of sound shifts that have occurred between Latin and Romance languages, along with a selection of minority languages.

Latino Sardo Italiano Sicilian [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Rumano Friulian [ 28 ] Piedmontese Romanche Francés Occitan [ 29 ] Catalán Aragonés Castellano Ladino Asturian Mirandese [ 30 ] Gallego Portugués Venetian Lombard Emiliana Inglés
aquam abba acqua acqua ap? aghe eva aua eau aiga aigua augua agua agua agua auga auga água agua agua âcua agua
altum artu alto autu înalt alt àut aut haut [ 31 ] n-aut alt alto alto alto altu alto alto alto alto alt èlt alto
caballum cuaddu cavallo cavaddu Cal ?haval caval chaval cheval caval cavall Caballo Caballo kavayo caballu cabalo cabalo cavalo cavaeo cavall cavâl caballo
ego deo io iu UE jo i(/mi) [ 32 ] jau je ieu/jo jo yo yo yo yo usted UE UE (mi) [ 32 ] (mì) [ 32 ] (mé) [ 32 ] Yo
facere faghere tarifa fari cara lejos faire far/fàser fer fer hacer azer facer fazer facer fazer lejos fèr hacer
focum fogu fuoco focu foc fûc feu fieu feu fuòc foc Fuego Fuego huego fueu fuogo fogo fogo fogo foeugh fûg fuego
insulam isula isola isula ((insul?)) [ 33 ] îsule ìsola insla île iscla illa isla/isola isla isola/adá isla ilha illa ilha isoea isola îsla isla
lactem latte latte latti lapte lat làit latg lait lach llet leit leche leche lleche lheite leite leite tarde latt lât leche
linguam limba lingua lingua limb? lenghe lenga lingua langue lenga llengua luenga lengua lingua llingua lhéngua lingua língua lengoa lengua langua tongue/
lengua
nostrum nostru nostro nostru nostru nestri nòst noss notre nòstre nostre nuestro nuestro muestro nuesu [ 34 ] nuosso [ 34 ] noso [ 34 ] nosso [ 34 ] nostro noster nòster nuestro
novum nou nuovo novu nou gnove neuv noviembre nouveau nòu nou nuebo Nuevo muevo nuevu nuobo novo novo novo noeuv nôv nuevo
pellem pedde pelle peddi piele Piel pel pel peau pèl pell Piel Piel pyél Piel Piel pel pele pée pell pèl piel
pluviam proìda pioggia chiuvuta [ 35 ] ploaie ploe pieuva plievgia pluie pluèja pluja plebia lluvia luvya lluvia chuba chuvia/choiva chuva piova pioeuva piôva lluvia
tr?s Tres tre tri trei tre tre trais trois Tres Tres Tres Tres Tres trés trés Tres três tre trii trî ( m )/
trai ( f )
tres
Latino Sardo Italiano Sicilian Rumano Friulian Piedmontese Romanche Francés Occitano Catalán Aragonés Español Ladino Asturian Mirandese Gallego Portugués Venetian Lombard Emiliana Inglés

[ editar ] Bibliografía

  • Holtus, Günter/Metzeltin, Michael/Schmitt, Christian: Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik. (LRL) Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988–2005 (12 volumes).
  • Lindenbauer, Petrea/Metzeltin, Michael/Thir, Margit: Die romanischen Sprachen. Eine einführende Übersicht . G. Egert, Wilhelmsfeld 1995.
  • Metzeltin, Michael: Las lenguas románicas estándar. Historia de su formación y de su uso . Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Uviéu 2004.

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

  1. ^ a b c [M. Paul Lewis, Ethnologue: Languages of the World Sixteenth Edition http://www.ethnologue.com/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size ]
  2. ^ Ilari, Rodolfo (2002). Lingüística Românica . Ática. pág. 50. ISBN 85-08-04250-7 .  
  3. ^ 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel reports 250,000 speakers of Romanian in Israel, while the 1995 census puts the total figure of the Israeli population at 5,548,523
  4. ^ "Reports of about 300,000 Jews who left the country after WW2" . Eurojewcong.org . http://www.eurojewcong.org/ejc/news.php?id_article=110 . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  5. ^ "Encarta Dictionary" . Microsoft Encarta 2006 . http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx . Retrieved 2009-11-16 .  
  6. ^ "Ethnologue" . SIL Haley . http://www.ethnologue.org/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size .  
  7. ^ "Sardos etiam, qui non Latii sunt sed Latiis associandi videntur, eiciamus, quoniam soli sine proprio vulgari esse videntur, gramaticam tanquam simie homines imitantes: nam domus nova et dominus meus lo**censored**ur." ("Let us ignore the Sards, then, who are not Latins but appear to be associated with them, because they alone seem to lack their own common tongue, rather imitating (Latin) grammar as monkeys do men: For they say 'domus nova' and 'dominus meus'.") It is unclear whether this indicates that Sardinian still had a two-case system at the time; modern Sardinian lacks grammatical case.
  8. ^ Note the palatalization in masculine amici /a?mit?i/ but lack of palatalization in amiche /a?mike/ ; this proves that feminine -e cannot come from Latin ae , which became /??/ by the first-century AD and would certainly have triggered palatalization.
  9. ^ Modern Latin
  10. ^ "Eall fhoil de Bhreathanach" . Archived from the original on June 10, 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080610171257/http://www.cix.co.uk/~morven/lang/breath.html .  
  11. ^ Henrik Theiling (2007-10-28). "Þrjótrunn: A North Romance Language: History" . Kunstsprachen.de . http://www.kunstsprachen.de/s17/s_02.html . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  12. ^ "Relay 10/R – Jelbazech" . Steen.free.fr. 2004-08-28 . http://steen.free.fr/relay10/jelbazech.html . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  13. ^ /?/ can occur only in unstressed syllables, and it tends to be rounded [??] ; it is replaced by [ø] when stressed.
  14. ^ Henri Wittmann . "Le français de Paris dans le français des Amériques." PDF (52.1 KB) , Proceedings of the International Congress of Linguists 16.0416 (Paris, 20–25 juillet 1997). Oxford: Pergamon (CD edition).
  15. ^ ipse originally meant "self", as in ego ipse or egomet ipse "I myself". ipse later shifted to mean "the" (still reflected in Sardinian and in the Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands ), and still later came to be a demonstrative pronoun. From -met ipse the emphatic ( superlative ) form metipsimum was created, later evolving into medisimum and eventually Spanish mismo , French même , Italian medesimo , which replaced both Latin ipse "self" and idem "same". The alternative form metipse eventually produced Catalan mateix , Old Portuguese medês . The normal Italian equivalent, however, is stesso , derived from the combination iste - ipse .
  16. ^ magnum also survives in Spanish tamaño , Portuguese tamanho "size" < tam magnum "so big".
  17. ^ Notice the current Portuguese spelling ( Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 ) abolished the use of the diaeresis for this purpose.
  18. ^ Pope (1934).
  19. ^ Allen (2003) states: "There appears to have been no great difference in quality between long and short a , but in the case of the close and mid vowels ( i and u , e and o ) the long appear to have been appreciably closer than the short." He then goes on to the historical development, quotations from various authors (from around the 2nd century AD), as well as evidence from older inscriptions where "e" stands for normally short i , and "i" for long e , etc.
  20. ^ Technically, Sardinian is one of the Southern Romance languages . The same vowel outcome occurred in a small strip running across southern Italy (the Lausberg Zone ), and is thought to have formerly occurred in the Romance languages of northern Africa.
  21. ^ Palmer (1954).
  22. ^ cauda would produce French *choue , Italian *[c?da] , Occitan *cauza (or similar), Romanian *caud? .
  23. ^ Note that the outcome of -am -em -om would be the same regardless of whether lengthening occurred, and that -im was already rare in Classical Latin, and appears to have barely survived in Proto-Romance. The only likely survival is in "-teen" numerals such as tr?decim "thirteen" > Italian tredici . This favors the vowel-lengthening hypothesis -im > /??/ > /i/ ; but notice unexpected decem > Italian dieci (rather than expected *diece ). It is possible that dieci comes from * decim , which analogically replaced decem based on the -decim ending; but it is also possible that the final /i/ in dieci represents an irregular development of some other sort and that the process of analogy worked in the other direction.
  24. ^ Formerly ?qü? in Brazilian Portuguese
  25. ^ Formerly ?gü? in Brazilian Portuguese
  26. ^ "Sicilian–English Dictionary" . Italian.about.com. 2010-06-15 . http://italian.about.com/od/sicilian/a/aa050405d_3.htm . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  27. ^ "Dictionary Sicilian – Italian" . Utenti.lycos.it . http://www.utenti.lycos.it/uerreclan_sito/dizionario.htm . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  28. ^ "Dictionary English–Friulian Friulian–English" . Sangiorgioinsieme.it . http://www.sangiorgioinsieme.it/Diz-friulan-english%20.htm . Retrieved 2011-07-31 .  
  29. ^ Beaumont (2008-12-16). "Occitan–English Dictionary" . Freelang.net . http://www.freelang.net/online/occitan.php?lg=gb . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  30. ^ "Translator Portuguese-Mirandese" . Student.dei.uc.pt . http://student.dei.uc.pt/~crpires/tradutor/Tradutor.html . Retrieved 2010-11-06 .  
  31. ^ Initial h- due to contamination of Germanic *hauh "high".
  32. ^ a b c d Cognate with Latin m? , not ego .
  33. ^ Not a direct inheritance, but a late re-borrowing from Latin (a latinism ).
  34. ^ a b c d Developed from an assimilated form * nossum rather than from nostrum .
  35. ^ Developed from * pluvi?tam .

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