República Romana

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República Romana
Nombre oficial (como en las monedas):
Roma

después de ca. 100 aC:
Senatus PopulusQue Romano
("El Senado y el Pueblo de Roma")
?

?
509 aC-27 aC ?

SPQR

Provincias romanas en la víspera del asesinato de Julio César , c. 44 a. C.
Capital Roma
Idioma (s) América , griego
Religión Politeísmo romano
Gobierno Oligárquica República
Cónsul
- 509-508 aC Lucio Junio ??Bruto , Lucio Tarquino Colatino
- 27 aC Cayo Julio César Octaviano ,
Marco Vipsanio Agripa
Legislatura Romano asambleas
Época histórica La antigüedad clásica
- Violación de Lucrecia 509 aC
- César proclamó dictador perpetuo 44 a. C.
- Batalla de Actium 02 de octubre 31 aC
- Octavio proclamó Augusto 16 de enero 27 aC
Área
- 326 aC [1] 10.000 km 2 (3.861 millas cuadradas)
- 200 a. C. [1] 360.000 kilometros 2 (138.997 millas cuadradas)
- 146 a. C. [1] 800.000 kilometros 2 (308.882 millas cuadradas)
- 100 aC [1] 1.200.000 kilometros 2 (463.323 millas cuadradas)
- 50 a. C. [1] 1.950.000 kilometros 2 (752.899 millas cuadradas)
Moneda Romano moneda
Hoy en día parte de

La República romana fue la época de la antigua civilización romana se caracteriza por un republicano, forma de gobierno. Se inició con el derrocamiento de la monarquía romana , que tradicionalmente se fecha alrededor de 508 aC, y su reemplazo por un gobierno encabezado por dos cónsules , elegidos anualmente por los ciudadanos y asesorado por un Senado . Una constitución compleja se desarrolló gradualmente, se centró en los principios de la separación de poderes y de controles y equilibrios . Excepto en tiempos de emergencia nacional grave, las oficinas públicas se limita a un año, por lo menos en teoría, ningún individuo puede dominar a sus conciudadanos.

En la práctica, la sociedad romana era jerárquica . La evolución de la constitución republicana fue fuertemente influenciado por la lucha entre Roma tenencia de la tierra aristocracia (los patricios ), que remontar su ascendencia a la temprana historia del reino romano, y los ciudadanos plebeyos mucho más numerosos, los plebeyos . Con el tiempo, las leyes que dieron Patricios derechos exclusivos para altos cargos de Roma fueron eliminadas o debilitadas, y una nueva aristocracia surgieron de entre la clase plebeya.

Republicano tradición y la moral requiere que los líderes de Roma ofrecer un servicio público y el patrocinio de la paz y la guerra, el éxito militar y político que se mezclan inextricablemente. Durante los dos primeros siglos de su existencia la República expandido a través de una combinación de la conquista y la alianza, desde el centro de Italia a la península italiana. En el siglo siguiente se incluye el norte de África, la Península Ibérica , Grecia, y lo que hoy es el sur de Francia. Dos siglos después, hacia el final del siglo 1 aC, que incluye el resto de la Francia moderna, y gran parte del este. En ese momento, a pesar de las restricciones tradicionales y legales de la República contra la adquisición de cualquier individuo de la permanente de los poderes políticos, la política romana estaba dominada por un pequeño número de líderes romanos, sus alianzas incómoda marcada por una serie de guerras civiles .

El vencedor final en estas guerras civiles, Octavio (más tarde Augusto) , reformó la República como un principado , con él mismo como "primer ciudadano" de Roma ( princeps ). El Senado siguió sentado y el debate, los magistrados anuales fueron elegidos como antes, pero las decisiones finales sobre asuntos de la política, la guerra, la diplomacia y las citas tuvieron el privilegio de la princeps como "primero entre iguales" (o imperator , de la cual el término emperador se deriva) . Sus poderes eran monárquicos en todos sino nombre, y él los mantuvo durante toda su vida, en nombre del Senado y el pueblo de Roma .

La República romana nunca fue restaurada, pero tampoco fue abolida, así que el evento que marcó su transición hacia el Imperio Romano es una cuestión de interpretación. Los historiadores han de diversas propuesto el nombramiento de Julio César como perpetuo dictador en el 44 aC, la derrota de Marco Antonio en la batalla de Actium en el 31 aC, y el Senado romano conceder 's de poderes extraordinarios a Octavio (Augusto) bajo el primer asentamiento en 27 a. C., como candidatos a la definición fundamental de eventos poner fin a la República.

Muchas de las estructuras legales y legislativas de Roma todavía se puede observar en toda Europa y el resto del mundo por el moderno Estado-nación y las organizaciones internacionales . De los romanos América lenguaje ha influido en la gramática y el vocabulario a través de partes de Europa y del mundo.

Contenido

[ editar ] Constitución

La Constitución de la República Romana fue un conjunto no escrito de directrices y principios transmite principalmente a través de los precedentes. [2] La constitución romana no fue formal u oficial aún. Fue en gran parte no escrita, no codificadas, y en constante evolución.

El Foro Romano , el centro comercial, cultural y político de la ciudad y de la República que albergó a las distintas oficinas y lugares de reunión del Gobierno

[ editar ] Senado de la República romana

El Senado de la máxima autoridad deriva de la estima y el prestigio del Senado. [3] Esta estima y prestigio se basa en los precedentes y la costumbre, así como la alta calidad y el prestigio de los senadores. [4] El Senado aprobó los decretos, que fueron llamados consultum senado. Esto fue oficialmente "consejos" del Senado a un magistrado. En la práctica, sin embargo, estos fueron obedecidas por lo general por los magistrados. [5] El enfoque del Senado romano se dirigió hacia la política exterior. [6] A pesar de que técnicamente no tenía ningún papel oficial en el manejo de conflictos militares, el Senado finalmente fue el fuerza que supervisó este tipo de asuntos.

[ editar ] Asambleas Legislativas

Fue el pueblo de Roma - y por lo tanto las asambleas - que tenía la última palabra sobre la elección de los magistrados, [7] de la promulgación de nuevas leyes, [8] la ejecución de la pena capital, la declaración de guerra y la paz, y la creación (o disolución) de las alianzas. [7] Hay dos tipos de asambleas legislativas . El primero fue los comicios ("comisiones"), [9] , que fueron las asambleas de todos los ciudadanos. La segunda fue la conciliación ("consejos"), que fueron las asambleas de grupos específicos de ciudadanos. [10]

[ editar ] Asamblea de los siglos

Los ciudadanos se han organizado sobre la base de los siglos y las tribus . De los siglos y las tribus se reúnen en cada uno sus propias asambleas. Los comicios por centurias ("Asamblea del siglo") era la asamblea de los siglos. El presidente de la Comitia centurias era generalmente un cónsul. [11] En los siglos que votar, uno a la vez, hasta que una medida recibió el apoyo de la mayoría de los siglos. Los comicios por centurias elegiría a los magistrados que tenían poderes imperium (cónsules y pretores). También se eligió a los censores. Sólo los comicios por centurias podría declarar la guerra, y ratificar los resultados de un censo. [12] También sirvió como el más alto tribunal de apelación en ciertos casos judiciales. [13]

[ editar ] Asamblea de las Tribus

La asamblea de las tribus, los Comitia tributa, fue presidida por un cónsul, [11] y se compone de treinta y cinco tribus. Las tribus no fueron los grupos étnicos o de parentesco, sino más bien subdivisiones geográficas. [14] El orden en que las tribus de treinta y cinco votaría fue seleccionado al azar por sorteo. [15] Una vez, una medida recibió el apoyo de la mayoría de las tribus de la la votación iba a terminar. Si bien no pasaron muchas leyes, los comicios se tributa cuestores elegidos curul ediles , y los tribunos militares. [16]

[ editar ] plebeyo Consejo

El Consejo plebeyo [17] era una asamblea de los plebeyos, los ciudadanos no patricios de Roma, que se reunían en sus respectivas tribus. Ellos eligieron a sus propios oficiales, los tribunos plebeyos y ediles plebeyos. Por lo general, un tribuno plebeyo podría presidir la asamblea. Esta asamblea aprobó la mayoría de las leyes, y también podría actuar como un tribunal de apelación. Desde que se organizó sobre la base de las tribus, sus reglas y procedimientos fueron casi idénticos a los de los Comitia tributa.

[ editar ] Magistrados Ejecutivo

Cada magistrado fue investido con un grado de maior potestas ("gran potencia"). [18] Cada magistrado podía vetar cualquier acción que fue tomada por un magistrado de un igual o inferior rango. plebeyo tribunos y ediles plebeyos , por el contrario, eran independientes de los demás magistrados. [11] [18]

[ editar ] Magisterial poderes y el control de los poderes

Cada magistrado republicano celebró ciertos poderes constitucionales . Sólo el pueblo de Roma (tanto los plebeyos y los patricios) tenía el derecho de otorgar estos poderes a cualquier magistrado individual. [19] El poder constitucional más poderoso imperio era. Imperium se llevó a cabo por los dos cónsules y los pretores. Imperium dio un magistrado de la autoridad para comando de una fuerza militar. Todos los magistrados también tenía el poder de coerción . Esto fue utilizado por los fiscales para mantener el orden público. [20] Mientras que en Roma, todos los ciudadanos tienen un juicio en contra de la coerción. Esta protección se llamaba provocatio (ver más abajo). Los magistrados también tenía el poder y el deber de buscar presagios. Este poder, a menudo se utiliza para obstruir los opositores políticos.

Un cheque por el poder del magistrado era su colegialidad . Cada oficina judicial que se celebrará al mismo tiempo por lo menos dos personas. Otra comprobación sobre el poder de un magistrado se provocatio . provocatio era una forma primordial de debido proceso . Fue un precursor de hábeas corpus . Si cualquier magistrado estaba tratando de utilizar los poderes del Estado contra un ciudadano, ese ciudadano puede apelar la decisión del magistrado de la tribuna. [21] Además, una vez período anual de un magistrado en el cargo caducado, tendría que esperar diez años antes de servir en ese cargo una vez más. Ya que este ha creado problemas a algunos cónsules y los pretores, los magistrados de vez en cuando tienen su imperio extendido. En efecto, podrían conservar los poderes de la oficina (como promagistrate ), sin que oficialmente la celebración de esa oficina. [22]

[ editar ] Los cónsules, pretores, censores, ediles, cuestores, tribunos, y los dictadores

La antigua Roma

Este artículo es parte de la serie:
Política y gobierno de
la antigua Roma


Períodos
Romano Reino
753 aC - 509 aC

República Romana
508 aC - 27 aC
Imperio Romano
27 aC - 1453

Principado
Western Empire

Dominar
Imperio del Este

Romano Constitución

Constitución del Reino
Constitución de la República
Constitución del Imperio
Constitución del Bajo Imperio
Historia de la Constitución
Senado
Asambleas legislativas
Magistrados Ejecutivo

Magistrados ordinarios

Cónsul
Pretor
Cuestor
Promagistrate

Edil
Tribuna
Censurar
Gobernador

Magistrados extraordinaria

Dictador
Magister Equitum
Consulares tribuna

Rex
Triumviri
Decemviri

Títulos y honores
Emperador

Legatus
Dux
Officium
Prefecto
Vicarius
Vigintisexviri
Lictor

Magister militum
Imperator
Princeps senatus
Pontifex Maximus
Augusto
César
Tetrarca

Precedente y la Ley
Derecho Romano

Imperium
Mos maiorum
Colegialidad

La ciudadanía romana
Auctoritas
Cursus honorum

senatus consultum
( senatus
consultum
ultimum
)

Otros países · Atlas
Portal de la política
Ver · hablar · editar

El cónsul de la república romana fue el más alto magistrado ordinario clasificación;. cada cónsul sirvió por un año [11] [23] Los cónsules tenían el poder supremo, tanto en materia civil y militar. Mientras que en la ciudad de Roma, los cónsules eran el jefe del gobierno romano. [11] Se podría presidir el Senado y las asambleas. En el extranjero, cada cónsul mando de un ejército. [11] [24] Su autoridad en el extranjero sería casi absoluto. [11]

Pretores que administrar la ley civil [25] y el comando de los ejércitos provinciales. Cada cinco años, dos censores serían elegidos por un plazo de dieciocho meses. Durante su mandato, los dos censores llevaría a cabo un censo . Durante el censo, los ciudadanos pueden inscribirse en el Senado, o purgar los del Senado. [26] ediles eran oficiales electos para conducir los asuntos internos de Roma, como la gestión de los juegos públicos y espectáculos. Los cuestores normalmente ayudaría a los cónsules en Roma, y los gobernadores de las provincias. Sus deberes eran el financiero.

Desde las tribunas se considera la encarnación de los plebeyos, que eran sacrosantas . Su sacrosanta fue impuesta por una promesa, tomadas por los plebeyos, para matar a cualquier persona que la maltrató o interferido con una tribuna durante su mandato. Todos los poderes de la tribuna derivados de su veneración. Una consecuencia obvia de esta sacrosanta fue el hecho de que se consideraba una ofensa capital a los daños de una tribuna, hacer caso omiso de su veto, o para interferir en una tribuna. [27]

En tiempos de emergencia militar, un dictador sería nombrado por un período de seis meses. [28] El gobierno constitucional se disuelve, y el dictador se convirtió en el dueño absoluto del Estado. [29] Al término de la dictadura terminó, el ??gobierno constitucional ser restaurado.

[ editar ] La historia política

La historia constitucional de la República romana se puede dividir en cinco fases. La primera fase comenzó con la revolución que derrocó a la monarquía en el 509 aC. La fase final terminó con la transición que transformó la República en lo que efectivamente sería el Imperio Romano, en el 27 aC. A lo largo de la historia de la república, la evolución constitucional fue impulsado por el conflicto de las órdenes entre la aristocracia y los ciudadanos de a pie.

[ editar ] Era Patricio (509-367 aC)

Según la leyenda, Lucio Tarquino el Soberbio, fue derrocado en 509 a. C. por un grupo de nobles encabezados por Lucio Junio ??Bruto. Tarquino se dice que han hecho una serie de intentos para retomar el trono, incluyendo la conspiración Tarquinian , la guerra con Veyes y Tarquinia y, finalmente, la guerra entre Roma y Clusium , que no logró alcanzar los objetivos de Tarquinio.

La monarquía histórica, tal como sugieren las leyendas, fue derrocado probablemente rápidamente, pero los cambios constitucionales que se produjo inmediatamente después de la revolución probablemente no eran tan extensas como las leyendas sugieren. El cambio constitucional más importante probablemente está preocupado el jefe del Ejecutivo. Antes de la revolución, un rey sería elegido por los senadores por un período de vida. Ahora, dos cónsules eran elegidos por los ciudadanos por un período anual. [30] Cada cónsul comprobar su colega, y su duración limitada en el cargo que abrirlos a la fiscalía si se abusa de los poderes de su cargo. Competencias consulares política, cuando se lo hace conjuntamente con un colega consular, no eran diferentes de las del viejo rey. [31] En el período inmediatamente posterior a la revolución, el Senado y las asambleas era tan débil como lo habían estado bajo la monarquía.

En 494 aC, la ciudad estaba en guerra con dos tribus vecinas. Los soldados plebeyos se negó a marchar contra el enemigo, y en su lugar se separó de la colina del Aventino . Los plebeyos reclamaron el derecho a elegir a sus propios funcionarios. Los patricios de acuerdo, y los plebeyos regresaron al campo de batalla. [32] Los plebeyos llamado a estos nuevos funcionarios " plebeyos tribunas ". Los tribunos tendría dos ayudantes, llamados " ediles plebeyos ". En el año 367 aC se promulgó una ley que requiere la elección de al menos un edil plebeyo cada año. En el 443 aC, la censura fue creado, y en 366 aC, el pretor fue creado. También en el año 366 aC, el aedileship curul fue creado. [33] Poco después de la fundación de la república, los comicios por centurias ("Asamblea de los siglos") se convirtió en la asamblea legislativa principal. En esta asamblea, los magistrados fueron elegidos, y las leyes aprobadas fueron.

Durante el siglo cuarto, una serie de reformas fueron aprobadas. El resultado de estas reformas era que cualquier ley aprobada por el Consejo plebeyo tendría la fuerza de la ley. Esto dio a las tribunas (quien presidió el Consejo plebeyo) un carácter positivo, por primera vez. Antes de que estas leyes fueron aprobadas, el único poder que los tribunos se celebró la del veto.

[ editar ] El conflicto de las Ordenes (367-287 aC)

Después de la aedileship plebeyo había sido creado, los patricios creó el aedileship curul. [34] Después de que el consulado se había abierto a los plebeyos, los plebeyos fueron capaces de mantener tanto la dictadura y la censura. plebiscitos de 342 aC límites colocados en cargos políticos , un individuo podría tener una sola oficina a la vez, y diez años que deben transcurrir entre el final de su mandato oficial y su reelección. Otras leyes trató de aliviar la carga de la deuda de los plebeyos con la prohibición de interés de los préstamos. [35] [36] En 337 aC, la primera plebeya fue elegido pretor. [37]

Durante estos años, los tribunos y los senadores hicieron cada vez más cerca. El Senado se dio cuenta de la necesidad de utilizar funcionarios plebeyos para lograr los objetivos deseados. [38] Para ganarse a los tribunos, los senadores dieron las tribunas una gran cantidad de poder y las tribunas comenzó a sentirse obligado al Senado. Como los tribunos y los senadores se acercaba, los senadores plebeyos eran a menudo capaces de asegurar el tribunado de los miembros de sus propias familias. Con el tiempo, el tribunado se convirtió en un trampolín para un cargo más alto. [39]

A mediados de el siglo 4 aC, el Concilium plebis promulgó la "Ley Ovinian". Durante la temprana república, los cónsules sólo podría nombrar a nuevos senadores. La ley Ovinian, sin embargo, dio este poder a los censores. También se requiere que el censor para designar a cualquier magistrado electo al Senado. [40] En este punto, los plebeyos ya la celebración de un importante número de oficinas magisterial. Por lo tanto, el número de senadores plebeyos probablemente aumentó rápidamente. Sin embargo, sigue siendo difícil para un plebeyo para entrar en el Senado si no era de una familia de políticos bien conocidos, como una nueva aristocracia patricia-como plebeyo surgido. [41] La antigua nobleza existido a través de la fuerza de la ley, porque sólo los patricios se deja reposar durante un alto cargo. La nueva nobleza existía debido a la organización de la sociedad. Por lo tanto, sólo una revolución podría derribar esta nueva estructura. [42]

Por 287 antes de Cristo, la situación económica de la media de la plebe se había convertido en pobres. Parece que el problema se han centrado en el endeudamiento generalizado. Los plebeyos exigieron alivio, pero los senadores se negaron a abordar su situación. El resultado fue la secesión plebeya final. Los plebeyos se separó de la colina del Janículo . Para poner fin a la secesión, un dictador fue nombrado. El dictador aprobó una ley (la "Ley Hortensia"), que puso fin a la exigencia de que los senadores patricios deben ponerse de acuerdo antes de que cualquier proyecto de ley podría ser considerada por el Consejo de plebeyo. [43] Esta no fue la primera ley para requerir que un acto de la plebeya Consejo tienen fuerza de ley. El Consejo plebeyo adquirido este poder en una modificación a la ley de valeriana original en 449 antes de Cristo. [44] La importancia de la ley se encuentra en el hecho de que robaba a los patricios de su arma final sobre los plebeyos. El resultado fue que el control sobre el estado cayó, no sobre los hombros de los votantes, pero a la nobleza plebeya nuevo. [45]

Los plebeyos había logrado por fin la igualdad política con los patricios. Sin embargo, la situación de los plebeyos promedio no había cambiado. Un pequeño número de familias plebeyas logró la misma posición que las antiguas familias aristocráticas patricio siempre había tenido, pero la nueva aristocracia plebeya se hizo tan interesados ??en la situación de los plebeyos media como los aristócratas viejo patricio había sido siempre. [42]

[ editar ] La soberanía de la nueva nobleza (287 a 133 aC)

El gran logro de la Ley Hortensia estaba en que privó a los patricios de su última arma en la plebe. Por lo tanto, el último gran cuestión política de la época anterior había sido resuelto. Por lo tanto, ningún cambio político importante que se producen entre 287 aC y 133. [46] Las leyes fundamentales de esta época fueron aprobadas todavía por el Senado. [47] En efecto, los plebeyos estaban satisfechos con la posesión del poder, pero cuidado de no usarlo. El Senado era supremo en esta época, porque la época estaba dominada por las cuestiones de política exterior y militar. [48] Esta fue la época más activa militar de la República romana.

Las últimas décadas de esta era se registró un empeoramiento de la situación económica de muchos plebeyos. Las campañas militares de largo había obligado a los ciudadanos a abandonar sus granjas a pelear, sólo para regresar a las fincas que había caído en mal estado. La aristocracia de la tierra comenzó a comprar fincas en bancarrota a precios reducidos. Como los precios de las materias primas cayeron, muchos agricultores ya no podía operar sus granjas en un beneficio. [49] El resultado final fue la quiebra de innumerables agricultores. Masas de plebeyos desempleados pronto comenzaron a inundar a Roma, y ??por lo tanto en las filas de las asambleas legislativas. Su situación económica general, los llevó a votar por el candidato que ofrece más por ellos. Una nueva cultura de la dependencia fue emergentes, que se vería a cualquier líder populista para el alivio. [50]

[ editar ] A partir de los Gracos a César (133-49 aC)

La anterior era visto grandes éxitos militares y grandes fracasos económicos. El patriotismo de los plebeyos les había impedido la búsqueda de cualquier reforma nueva. Ahora, la situación militar se había estabilizado, y menos soldados eran necesarias. Esto, junto con los nuevos esclavos que se importaban del extranjero, empeoró la situación de un mayor desempleo. La inundación de los ciudadanos desempleados a Roma había hecho las asambleas muy populista.

[ editar ] Los Gracos

Cayo Graco, tribuno del pueblo, presidiendo el Consejo de plebeyo

Tiberio Graco fue elegido tribuno en 133 aC. Él intentó promulgar una ley que habría limitado la cantidad de tierra que cualquier persona podía poseer. Los aristócratas, que podían perder una enorme cantidad de dinero, se oponían a esta propuesta. Tiberio presentó esta ley al Consejo de plebeyo, pero la ley fue vetada por un tribuno llamado Marcus Octavio . Tiberio se utiliza el Consejo de plebeyo a juicio político de Octavio. La teoría, que un representante de la gente deja de ser uno cuando actúa en contra de los deseos de la gente, fue en contra de la teoría constitucional romana. Si se lleva a su extremo lógico, esta teoría sería eliminar todas las restricciones constitucionales a la voluntad popular, y poner al estado bajo el control absoluto de una mayoría popular temporales. [51] Su ley fue promulgada, pero Tiberio fue asesinado cuando se presentó a la reelección el tribunado.

Tiberio hermano Cayo fue elegido tribuno en el 123 aC. Cayo Graco " objetivo final es debilitar el Senado y para fortalecer las fuerzas democráticas. [52] En el pasado, por ejemplo, el Senado sería eliminar a sus rivales políticos ya sea mediante el establecimiento de comisiones especiales judicial o pasando un senatus consultum ultimum ("decreto definitivo del Senado"). Ambos dispositivos permitiría al Senado para eludir los derechos ordinarios del debido proceso que todos los ciudadanos. Gayo fuera de la ley a las comisiones judiciales, y declaró que el ultimum consultum senado es inconstitucional. Gayo se propuso una ley que otorgaría derechos de ciudadanía a los aliados italianos de Roma. En este punto, sin embargo, una parte de Roma, lo abandonó. Se puso de pie para la elección de un tercer mandato en el año 121 aC, pero fue derrotado y luego asesinado. El Senado se debilitó significativamente. [53]

[ editar ] Los populares y los optimates la

Un romano denario golpeó en el 56 aC que muestra a un lado el busto de la diosa Diana , y en el reverso, el general romano Lucio Cornelio Sila se ofrece una rama de olivo por su aliado que Boccho como el cautivo Yugurta se arrodilla junto a Sila con las manos atadas.

En el año 118 aC, el rey Micipsa de Numidia (actual día de Argelia y Túnez) murió. Le sobreviven dos hijos legítimos, Adherbal y Hiempsal , y un hijo ilegítimo, Yugurta . Micipsa dividió su reino entre estos tres hijos. Yugurta, sin embargo, volvió sobre sus hermanos, matando y expulsando Hiempsal Adherbal de Numidia. Adherbal huyó a Roma para la asistencia, y en un principio Roma mediada por una división del país entre los dos hermanos. Con el tiempo, Yugurta renovado su ofensiva, llevando a una guerra larga y no concluyentes, de Roma. También sobornó a varios comandantes romanos, y al menos dos tribunas, antes y durante la guerra. Su némesis, Cayo Mario , un legado de una familia de provincia prácticamente desconocida, regresó de la guerra en Numidia y fue elegido cónsul en el 107 aC sobre las objeciones de los senadores aristocráticos. Marius invadió Numidia y llevó la guerra a un final rápido, la captura de Yugurta en el proceso. La aparente incompetencia del Senado, y el brillo de Marius, había sido puesto en pantalla completa. [54] Los populares del partido se aprovechó de esta oportunidad de aliarse con Marius.

Varios años más tarde, en el 88 aC, un ejército romano fue enviado para acabar con una potencia emergente de Asia, el rey Mitrídates del Ponto . El ejército, sin embargo, fue derrotado. Uno de los cuestores de edad de Marius, Lucio Cornelio Sila , había sido elegido cónsul en el año, y fue ordenado por el Senado para asumir el mando de la guerra contra Mitrídates. Marius, un miembro de los " populares "del partido, había una tribuna revocar orden de Sila de la guerra contra Mitrídates. Sila, miembro de la aristocracia (" optimates ") del partido, llevó a su ejército de vuelta a Italia y marchó sobre Roma . Sila estaba tan enojado con tribuna de Marius que aprobó una ley destinada a debilitar permanentemente el tribunado. [55] A continuación, regresó a su guerra contra Mitrídates. Con Sila pasado, los populares en Mario y Lucio Cornelio Cinna pronto tomó el control de la ciudad.

Durante el período en que el partido controlado populares de la ciudad, burlado por la convención re-elección de cónsul Marius varias veces sin respetar los habituales diez años de intervalo entre las oficinas. También transgredió la oligarquía establecida por el avance individuos elegidos a la oficina judicial, y mediante la sustitución de edictos del magisterio de la legislación popular.

Sila pronto hizo las paces con Mitrídates. En el año 83 aC, regresó a Roma, venció toda resistencia, y recobró la ciudad. Sila y sus partidarios luego sacrificado la mayor parte de los partidarios de Marius. Sila, después de haber observado los resultados violentos de los radicales reformas populares, era naturalmente conservadora. Como tal, se busca fortalecer la aristocracia, y por extensión el Senado. [56] Sila se hizo dictador, aprobó una serie de reformas constitucionales , renunció a la dictadura, y fue un último término como cónsul. Murió en el 78 aC.

[ editar ] Pompeyo, Craso y la conspiración catilinaria

A Roman marble head of Pompey (now found in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek )

In 77 BC, the senate sent one of Sulla's former lieutenants, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"), to put down an uprising in Spain. By 71 BC, Pompey returned to Rome after having completed his mission. Around the same time, another of Sulla's former lieutenants, Marcus Licinius Crassus , had just put down the Spartacus led gladiator/slave revolt in Italy. Upon their return, Pompey and Crassus found the populares party fiercely attacking Sulla's constitution. [ 57 ] They attempted to forge an agreement with the populares party. If both Pompey and Crassus were elected consul in 70 BC, they would dismantle the more obnoxious components of Sulla's constitution. The two were soon elected, and quickly dismantled most of Sulla's constitution. [ 58 ]

Around 66 BC, a movement to use constitutional, or at least peaceful, means to address the plight of various classes began. [ 59 ] After several failures, the movement's leaders decided to use any means that were necessary to accomplish their goals. The movement coalesced under an aristocrat named Lucius Sergius Catilina . The movement was based in the town of Faesulae, which was a natural hotbed of agrarian agitation. [ 60 ] The rural malcontents were to advance on Rome, [ 61 ] and be aided by an uprising within the city. After assassinating the consuls and most of the senators, Catiline would be free to enact his reforms. The conspiracy was set in motion in 63 BC. The consul for the year, Marcus Tullius Cicero , intercepted messages that Catiline had sent in an attempt to recruit more members. As a result, the top conspirators in Rome (including at least one former consul) were executed by authorisation (of dubious constitutionality) of the senate, and the planned uprising was disrupted. Cicero then sent an army, which cut Catiline's forces to pieces.

The most important result of the Catilinarian conspiracy was that the populares party became discredited. The prior 70 years had witnessed a gradual erosion in senatorial powers. The violent nature of the conspiracy, in conjunction with the senate's skill in disrupting it, did a great deal to repair the senate's image. [ 61 ]

[ edit ] First Triumvirate

In 62 BC, Pompey returned victorious from Asia. The senate, elated by its successes against Catiline, refused to ratify the arrangements that Pompey had made. Pompey, in effect, became powerless. Thus, when Julius Caesar returned from a governorship in Spain in 61 BC, he found it easy to make an arrangement with Pompey. Caesar and Pompey, along with Crassus, established a private agreement, now known as the First Triumvirate . Under the agreement, Pompey's arrangements would be ratified. Caesar would be elected consul in 59 BC, and would then serve as governor of Gaul for five years. Crassus was promised a future consulship. [ 62 ]

Caesar became consul in 59 BC. His colleague, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , was an extreme aristocrat. Caesar submitted the laws that he had promised Pompey to the assemblies. Bibulus attempted to obstruct the enactment of these laws, and so Caesar used violent means to ensure their passage. [ 62 ] Caesar was then made governor of three provinces. He facilitated the election of the former patrician Publius Clodius Pulcher to the tribunate for 58 BC. Clodius set about depriving Caesar's senatorial enemies of two of their more obstinate leaders in Cato and Cicero. Clodius was a bitter opponent of Cicero because Cicero had testified against him in a sacrilege case. Clodius attempted to try Cicero for executing citizens without a trial during the Catiline conspiracy, resulting in Cicero going into self-imposed exile and his house in Rome being burnt down. Clodius also passed a bill that forced Cato to lead the invasion of Cyprus which would keep him away from Rome for some years. Clodius also passed a bill that gave the populace a free grain dole, which had previously just been subsidised. [ 63 ]

[ edit ] The end of the First Triumvirate

Clodius formed armed gangs that terrorised the city and eventually began to attack Pompey's followers, who in response funded counter-gangs formed by Titus Annius Milo . The political alliance of the triumvirate was crumbling. Domitius Ahenobarbus ran for the consulship in 55 BC promising to take Caesar's command from him. Eventually, the triumvirate was renewed at Lucca. Pompey and Crassus were promised the consulship in 55 BC, and Caesar's term as governor was extended for five years. Crassus led an ill-fated expedition with legions led by his son, Caesar's lieutenant, against the Kingdom of Parthia. This resulted in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae . Finally, Pompey's wife, Julia, who was Caesar's daughter, died in childbirth. This event severed the last remaining bond between Pompey and Caesar.

Beginning in the summer of 54 BC, a wave of political corruption and violence swept Rome. [ 64 ] This chaos reached a climax in January of 52 BC, when Clodius was murdered in a gang war by Milo. On 1 January of 49 BC, an agent of Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate. The ultimatum was rejected, and the senate then passed a resolution which declared that if Caesar did not lay down his arms by July of that year, he would be considered an enemy of the republic. [ 65 ] On 7 January of 49 BC, the senate passed a senatus consultum ultimum , which vested Pompey with dictatorial powers. Pompey's army, however, was composed largely of untested conscripts. On 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his veteran army (in violation of Roman laws) and marched towards Rome. Caesar's rapid advance forced Pompey, the consuls and the senate to abandon Rome for Greece. Caesar entered the city unopposed.

[ edit ] The period of transition (49–29 BC)

The era that began when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC and ended when Octavian returned to Rome after Actium in 29 BC, saw the constitutional evolution of the prior century accelerate at a rapid pace. By 29 BC, Rome had completed its transition from being a city-state with a network of dependencies, to being the capital of a world empire. [ 66 ]

With Pompey defeated and order restored, Caesar wanted to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed. The powers which he would give himself would ultimately be used by his imperial successors. [ 67 ] He would assume these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome's other political institutions.

Caesar would hold both the dictatorship and the tribunate, but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship. [ 67 ] In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers. This made his person sacrosanct, gave him the power to veto the senate, and allowed him to dominate the Plebeian Council. In 46 BC, Caesar was given censorial powers, [ 68 ] which he used to fill the senate with his own partisans. Caesar then raised the membership of the senate to 900. [ 69 ] This robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made it increasingly subservient to him. While the assemblies continued to meet, he submitted all candidates to the assemblies for election, and all bills to the assemblies for enactment. Thus, the assemblies became powerless and were unable to oppose him. [ 70 ]

Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire . Since his absence from Rome would limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. [ 69 ]

[ edit ] Caesar's assassination and the Second Triumvirate

Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. The motives of the conspirators were both personal and political. The assassination was led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus . Most of the conspirators were senators, many of whom were angry that Caesar had deprived the senate of much of its power and prestige. Others believed he was a tyrant, abusing his power and clearing a path to absolute rule as a king. The senators took it upon themselves to destroy Caesar before he made himself invulnerable, and they stabbed Caesar to death in Pompey's theater, where the senate was meeting on 15 March (44 BC). The civil war that followed destroyed what was left of the republic. [ 71 ]

After the assassination, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's adopted son and great-nephew, Gaius Octavian . Along with Marcus Lepidus , they formed an alliance known as the Second Triumvirate . [ 72 ] They held powers that were nearly identical to the powers that Caesar had held under his constitution. As such, the senate and assemblies remained powerless, even after Caesar had been assassinated. The conspirators were then defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. Eventually, however, Antony and Octavian fought against each other in one last battle. Antony was defeated in the naval Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and he committed suicide with his love, Cleopatra . In 29 BC, Octavian returned to Rome as the unchallenged master of the empire and later accepted the title of Augustus - "Exalted One" .

[ editar ] Cultura

Julius Caesar , from the bust in the British Museum , in Cassell's History of England (1902).

Life in the Roman Republic revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills . The city also had several theatres . [ 73 ] gymnasiums , and many taverns, baths and brothels. Throughout the territory under Rome's control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas , and in the capital city of Rome, to the residences on the elegant Palatine Hill , from which the word " palace " is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city center, packed into apartment blocks.

Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself. Aqueducts were built to bring water to urban centers [ 74 ] and wine and cooking oil were imported from abroad. Landlords generally resided in cities and their estates were left in the care of farm managers. To stimulate a higher labour productivity, many landlords freed large numbers of slaves.

Beginning in the middle of the 2nd century BC, Greek culture was increasingly ascendant, [ 75 ] in spite of tirades against the "softening" effects of Hellenised culture. By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls). Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas, and much Roman cuisine was essentially Greek. Roman writers disdained Latin for a cultured Greek style.

[ edit ] Social history and structure

Many aspects of Roman culture were borrowed from the Greeks . [ 75 ] In architecture and sculpture , the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome . Rome has also had a tremendous impact on European cultures following it. Its significance is perhaps best reflected in its endurance and influence, as is seen in the longevity and lasting importance of works of Virgil and Ovid . Latin, the Republic's primary language, remains used for liturgical purposes by the Roman Catholic Church, and up to the 19th century was used extensively in scholarly writings in, for example, science and mathematics. Roman law laid the foundations for the laws of many European countries and their colonies.

The center of the early social structure was the family, [ 76 ] which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas . [ 77 ] The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death. [ 78 ] Roman law recognised only patrician families as legal entities.

Slavery and slaves were part of the social order; there were slave markets where they could be bought and sold. Many slaves were freed by the masters for services rendered; some slaves could save money to buy their freedom. Generally, mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved. [ 79 ] [ 80 ]

[ edit ] Clothing and dining

Roman clad in a toga .

Men typically wore a toga , and women a stola . The woman's stola looked different than a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians , or common people, like shepherds and slaves, was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool. [ 81 ] A knight or magistrate would wear an augusticlavus , a tunic bearing small purple studs. Senators wore tunics with broad red stripes, called tunica laticlavia . [ 82 ] [ 83 ] Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia , wore the toga praetexta , which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. The toga virilis , (or toga pura ) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome. The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning.

Even footwear indicated a person's social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals. [ 84 ]

Romans had simple food habits. Staple food was generally consumed at around 11 o'clock, and consisted of bread, salad, cheese, fruits, nuts, and cold meat left over from the dinner the night before. The Roman poet, Horace mentions another Roman favorite, the olive, in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: "As for me, olives, endives , and smooth mallows provide sustenance." [ 85 ] The family ate together, sitting on stools around a table. Fingers were used to eat solid foods and spoons were used for soups.

Wine was considered a staple drink, [ 86 ] consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite cheap. Cato the Elder once advised cutting his rations in half to conserve wine for the workforce. [ 87 ] Many types of drinks involving grapes and honey were consumed as well. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, whose debilitating physical and psychological effects were known to the Romans. An accurate accusation of being an alcoholic was an effective way to discredit political rivals. Prominent Roman alcoholics included Mark Antony , [ 88 ] and Cicero's own son Marcus ( Cicero Minor ). Even Cato the Younger was known to be a heavy drinker.

[ edit ] Education and language

Following various military conquests in the Greek East , Romans adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own fledgling system. [ 89 ] Physical training to prepare the boys to grow as Roman citizens and for eventual recruitment into the army. Conforming to discipline was a point of great emphasis. Girls generally received instruction [ 90 ] from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing. Schooling in a more formal sense was begun around 200 BC. Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of reading, writing and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking. Oratory was an art to be practiced and learnt, and good orators commanded respect.

The language of Rome has had a profound impact on later cultures, as demonstrated by this manuscript from the Middle Ages.

The native language of the Romans was Latin. Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin , an artificial and highly stylised and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the actual spoken language was Vulgar Latin , which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar, vocabulary, and eventually pronunciation. Rome's expansion spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time Vulgar Latin evolved and dialectised in different locations, gradually shifting into a number of distinct Romance languages . [ 91 ] Many of these languages, including French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish, flourished, the differences between them growing greater over time. Although English is Germanic rather than Romanic in origin, English borrows heavily from Latin and Latin-derived words.

[ edit ] The arts

Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry. His Aeneid tells the story of flight of Aeneas from Troy and his settlement of the city that would become Rome. Lucretius , in his On the Nature of Things , attempted to explicate science in an epic poem. The genre of satire was common in Rome, and satires were written by, among others, Juvenal [ 92 ] and Persius . The rhetorical works of Cicero are considered to be some of the best bodies of correspondence recorded in antiquity.

In the 3rd century BC, Greek art taken as booty from wars became popular, and many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Portrait sculpture [ 93 ] during the period utilised youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, often depicting Roman victories.

Music was a major part of everyday life. The word itself derives from Greek ??????? ( mousike ), "(art) of the Muses ". [ 94 ] Many private and public events were accompanied by music, ranging from nightly dining to military parades and manoeuvres. In a discussion of any ancient music, however, non-specialists and even many musicians have to be reminded that much of what makes our modern music familiar to us is the result of developments only within the last 1,000 years; thus, our ideas of melody, scales, harmony, and even the instruments we use would not be familiar to Romans who made and listened to music many centuries earlier.

Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined. The Roman concrete has remained a riddle, and even after more than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand magnificently. [ 95 ] The architectural style of the capitol city was emulated by other urban centers under Roman control and influence. Roman cities were well planned, efficiently managed and neatly maintained.

[ edit ] Sports and entertainment

The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars"), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome's track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Equestrian sports, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities. In the countryside, pastime included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included dice (Tesserae or Tali ), Roman Chess ( Latrunculi ), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon. [ 96 ] There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances.

[ editar ] Religión

Roman religious beliefs date back to the founding of Rome, around 800 BC. However, the Roman religion commonly associated with the republic and early empire did not begin until around 500 BC, when Romans came in contact with Greek culture, and adopted many of the Greek religious beliefs. Private and personal worship was an important aspect of religious practices. In a sense, each household was a temple to the gods . Each household had an altar ( lararium ), at which the family members would offer prayers, perform rites, and interact with the household gods. Many of the gods that Romans worshiped came from the Proto-Indo-European pantheon , others were based on Greek gods . The two most famous deities were Jupiter (the king God) and Mars (the god of war). With its cultural influence spreading over most of the Mediterranean, Romans began accepting foreign gods into their own culture, as well as other philosophical traditions such as Cynicism and Stoicism . [ 97 ]

[ edit ] Military

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This article is part of the series on:
Military of ancient Rome ( portal )
753 BC – AD 476
Structural history
Roman army ( unit types and ranks , legions , auxiliaries , generals )
Roman navy ( fleets , admirals )
Campaign history
Lists of wars and battles
Decorations and punishments
Technological history
Military engineering ( castra , siege engines , arches , roads )
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications ( limes , Hadrian's Wall )
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[ edit ] Structural history

The structural history of the Roman military describes the major chronological transformations in the organisation and constitution of the Roman armed forces. The Roman military was split into the Roman army and the Roman navy , although these two branches were less distinct than they tend to be in modern defence forces. Within the top-level branches of army and navy, structural changes occurred both as a result of positive military reform and through organic structural evolution.

[ edit ] Hoplite armies (509–c. 315 BC)

During this period, Roman soldiers seem to have been modelled after those of the Etruscans to the north, [ 98 ] who themselves seem to have copied their style of warfare from the Greeks. Traditionally, the introduction of the phalanx formation into the Roman army is ascribed to the city's penultimate king, Servius Tullius (ruled 578 to 534 BC). [ 99 ] According to Livy [ 100 ] and Dionysius of Halicarnassus , [ 101 ] the front rank was composed of the wealthiest citizens, who were able to purchase the best equipment. Each subsequent rank consisted of those with less wealth and poorer equipment than the one before it.

One disadvantage of the phalanx was that it was only effective when fighting in large, open spaces, which left the Romans at a disadvantage when fighting in the hilly terrain of central Italian peninsula . In the 4th century BC, the Romans abandoned the phalanx in favour of the more flexible manipular formation. This change is sometimes attributed to Marcus Furius Camillus and placed shortly after the Gallic invasion of 390 BC; it is more likely, however, that they were copied from Rome's Samnite enemies to the south, [ 102 ] possibly as a result of Samnite victories during the Second Samnite War (326 to 304 BC). [ 103 ]

[ edit ] Manipular legion (c. 315–107 BC)

During this period, an army formation of around 5,000 men (of both heavy and light infantry) was known as a legion. The manipular army was based upon social class, age and military experience. [ 104 ] Maniples were units of 120 men each drawn from a single infantry class. The maniples were typically deployed into three discrete lines based on the three heavy infantry types.

Each first line maniple were leather-armoured infantry soldiers who wore a bronze breastplate and a bronze helmet adorned with 3 feathers approximately 30 cm (12 in) in height and carried an iron-clad wooden shield. They were armed with a sword and two throwing spears. The second infantry line was armed and armoured in the same manner as was the first infantry line. The second infantry line, however, wore a lighter coat of mail rather than a solid brass breastplate. The third infantry line was the last remnant of the hoplite-style (the Greek-style formation used occasionally during the early republic) troops in the Roman army. They were armed and armoured in the same manner as were the soldiers in the second line, with the exception that they carried a lighter spear. [ 105 ]

The three infantry classes [ 106 ] may have retained some slight parallel to social divisions within Roman society, but at least officially the three lines were based upon age and experience rather than social class. Young, unproven men would serve in the first line, older men with some military experience would serve in the second line, and veteran troops of advanced age and experience would serve in the third line.

The heavy infantry of the maniples were supported by a number of light infantry and cavalry troops, typically 300 horsemen per manipular legion. [ 106 ] The cavalry was drawn primarily from the richest class of equestrians. There was an additional class of troops who followed the army without specific martial roles and were deployed to the rear of the third line. Their role in accompanying the army was primarily to supply any vacancies that might occur in the maniples. The light infantry consisted of 1,200 unarmoured skirmishing troops drawn from the youngest and lower social classes. They were armed with a sword and a small shield, as well as several light javelins.

A small navy had operated at a fairly low level after about 300 BC, but it was massively upgraded about forty years later, during the First Punic War . After a period of frenetic construction, the navy mushroomed to a size of more than 400 ships on the Carthaginian ("Punic") pattern. Once completed, it could accommodate up to 100,000 sailors and embarked troops for battle. The navy thereafter declined in size. [ 107 ]

The extraordinary demands of the Punic Wars , in addition to a shortage of manpower, exposed the tactical weaknesses of the manipular legion, at least in the short term. [ 108 ] In 217 BC, near the beginning of the Second Punic War , Rome was forced to effectively ignore its long-standing principle that its soldiers must be both citizens and property owners. During the 2nd century BC, Roman territory saw an overall decline in population, [ 109 ] partially due to the huge losses incurred during various wars. This was accompanied by severe social stresses and the greater collapse of the middle classes. As a result, the Roman state was forced to arm its soldiers at the expense of the state, which it had not had to do in the past.

The distinction between the heavy infantry types began to blur, perhaps because the state was now assuming the responsibility of providing standard-issue equipment. In addition, the shortage of available manpower led to a greater burden being placed upon Rome's allies for the provision of allied troops. [ 110 ] Eventually, the Romans were forced to begin hiring mercenaries to fight alongside the legions. [ 111 ]

[ edit ] The legion after the reforms of Gaius Marius (107–27 BC)

Bust of Gaius Marius , instigator of the Marian reforms .

In a process known as the Marian reforms , Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military. [ 112 ] In 107 BC, all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for entry into the Roman army. This move formalised and concluded a gradual process that had been growing for centuries, of removing property requirements for military service. [ 113 ] The distinction between the three heavy infantry classes, which had already become blurred, had collapsed into a single class of heavy legionary infantry. The heavy infantry legionaries were drawn from citizen stock, while non-citizens came to dominate the ranks of the light infantry. The army's higher-level officers and commanders were still drawn exclusively from the Roman aristocracy. [ 114 ]

Unlike earlier in the Republic, legionaries were no longer fighting on a seasonal basis to protect their land. ?[›] Instead, they received standard pay, and were employed by the state on a fixed-term basis. As a consequence, military duty began to appeal most to the poorest sections of society, to whom a salaried pay was attractive. A destabilising consequence of this development was that the proletariat "acquired a stronger and more elevated position" [ 115 ] within the state.

The legions of the late Republic were, structurally, almost entirely heavy infantry. The legion's main sub-unit was called a cohort and consisted of approximately 480 infantrymen. The cohort was therefore a much larger unit than the earlier maniple sub-unit, and was divided into six centuries of 80 men each. [ 116 ] Each century was separated further into 10 "tent groups" of 8 men each. Legions additionally consisted of a small body, typically 120 men, of Roman legionary cavalry. The cavalry troops were used as scouts and dispatch riders rather than battlefield cavalry. [ 117 ] Legions also contained a dedicated group of artillery crew of perhaps 60 men. Each legion was normally partnered with an approximately equal number of allied (non-Roman) troops. [ 118 ]

However, the most obvious deficiency of the Roman army remained its shortage of cavalry, especially heavy cavalry. [ 119 ] As Rome's borders expanded and its adversaries changed from largely infantry-based to largely cavalry-based troops, the infantry-based Roman army began to find itself at a tactical disadvantage, particularly in the East.

After having declined in size following the subjugation of the Mediterranean, the Roman navy underwent short-term upgrading and revitalisation in the late Republic to meet several new demands. Under Caesar , an invasion fleet was assembled in the English Channel to allow the invasion of Britannia ; under Pompey , a large fleet was raised in the Mediterranean Sea to clear the sea of Cilician pirates. During the civil war that followed, as many as a thousand ships were either constructed or pressed into service from Greek cities. [ 107 ]

[ edit ] Campaign history

The core of the campaign history of the Roman Republican military is the account of the Roman military 's land battles. Despite the encompassing of lands around the periphery of the Mediterranean sea, naval battles were typically less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome.

As with most ancient civilisations, Rome's military served the triple purposes of securing its borders, exploiting peripheral areas through measures such as imposing tribute on conquered peoples, and maintaining internal order. From the outset, Rome's military typified this pattern and the majority of Rome's campaigns were characterised by one of two types. The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive, [ 120 ] in which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory. The second is the civil war, of which examples plagued the Roman Republic in its final century.

Roman armies were not invincible, despite their formidable reputation and host of victories. Over the centuries the Romans " produced their share of incompetents " [ 121 ] who led Roman armies into catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Rome's enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal , [ 122 ] to win the battle but lose the war. The history of Rome's campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses.

[ edit ] Early Republic (458–274 BC)

[ edit ] Early Italian campaigns (458–396 BC)

The first Roman republican wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. [ 123 ] Initially, Rome's immediate neighbours were either Latin towns and villages, [ 124 ] or else tribal Sabines from the Apennine hills beyond. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities that were either under Etruscan control or else Latin towns that had cast off their Etruscan rulers. [ 125 ] Rome defeated Latin cities in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496 BC, [ 124 ] [ 126 ] the Battle of Mons Algidus in 458 BC, the Battle of Corbione in 446 BC, [ 127 ] [ 128 ] the Battle of Aricia , [ 129 ] and an Etruscan city in the Battle of the Cremera in 477 BC, [ 130 ] [ 131 ]

By the end of this period, Rome had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan and Latin neighbours, [ 132 ] as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the nearby Apennine hills.

[ edit ] Celtic invasion of Italia (390–387 BC)

By 390 BC, several Gallic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north as their culture expanded throughout Europe. The Romans were alerted of this when a particularly warlike tribe [ 133 ] invaded two Etruscan towns from the north. These two towns were not far from Rome's sphere of influence. These towns, overwhelmed by the size of the enemy in numbers and ferocity, called on Rome for help. The Romans met them in pitched battle at the Battle of Allia River around 390–387 BC. The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus , defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and sacked the city [ 134 ] before being either driven off or bought off. Now that the Romans and Gauls had bloodied one another, intermittent warfare was to continue between the two in Italy for more than two centuries. The Celtic problem would not be resolved for Rome until the final subjugation of all Gaul by Julius Caesar at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC.

[ edit ] Roman expansion into Italia (343–282 BC)
Map showing Roman expansion in Italy.

After recovering surprisingly swiftly from the sack of Rome, [ 135 ] the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy. The First Samnite War of between 343 BC and 341 BC was a relatively short affair: the Romans beat the Samnites in two battles, but were forced to withdraw from the war before they could pursue the conflict further due to the revolt of several of their Latin allies in the Latin War . [ 136 ] [ 137 ] Rome bested the Latins in the Battle of Vesuvius and again in the Battle of Trifanum , [ 137 ] after which the Latin cities were obliged to submit to Roman rule. [ 138 ]

The Second Samnite War , from 327 BC to 304 BC, was a much longer and more serious affair for both the Romans and Samnites. [ 139 ] The fortunes of the two sides fluctuated throughout its course. The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. By 304 BC the Romans had effectively annexed the greater degree of the Samnite territory, founding several colonies.

Seven years after their defeat, with Roman dominance of the area looking assured, the Samnites rose again and defeated a Roman army in 298 BC, to open the Third Samnite War . With this success in hand they managed to bring together a coalition of several previous enemies of Rome. [ 140 ] In the Battle of Populonia in 282 BC Rome finished off the last vestiges of Etruscan power in the region.

[ edit ] Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC)
Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus

By the beginning of the 3rd century, Rome had established itself as a major power on the Italian Peninsula , but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean Basin at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms. [ 141 ] [ 142 ]

When a diplomatic dispute between Rome and a Greek colony [ 143 ] erupted into open warfare in a naval confrontation, the Greek colony appealed for military aid to Pyrrhus , ruler of the northwestern Greek kingdom of Epirus . Motivated by a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men on Italian soil in 280 BC.

Despite early victories, Pyrrhus found his position in Italy untenable. Rome steadfastly refused to negotiate with Pyrrhus as long as his army remained in Italy. [ 144 ] Facing unacceptably heavy losses with each encounter with the Roman army, Pyrrhus withdrew from the peninsula. In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum . While Beneventum was indecisive, Pyrrhus realised his army had been exhausted and reduced, by years of foreign campaigns, and seeing little hope for further gains, he withdrew completely from Italy.

The conflicts with Pyrrhus would have a great effect on Rome. Rome had shown it was capable of pitting its armies successfully against the dominant military powers of the Mediterranean, and that the Greek kingdoms were incapable of defending their colonies in Italy and abroad. Rome quickly moved into southern Italia, subjugating and dividing the Greek colonies. [ 145 ] Now, Rome effectively dominated the Italian peninsula, [ 146 ] and won an international military reputation. [ 147 ]

[ edit ] Mid-Republic (274–148 BC)

[ edit ] Punic Wars (264–146 BC)
Theatre of Punic Wars

The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay – Rome and Carthage – to solve internal conflicts. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but the theatre shifted to naval battles around Sicily and Africa. Before the First Punic War there was no Roman navy to speak of. The new war in Sicily against Carthage , a great naval power, [ 148 ] forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. [ 149 ]

The first few naval battles were catastrophic disasters for Rome. However, after training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine, [ 150 ] a Roman naval force was able to defeat a Carthaginian fleet, and further naval victories followed. [ 151 ] The Carthaginians then hired Xanthippus of Carthage , a Spartan mercenary general, to reorganise and lead their army. [ 152 ] He managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy. With their newfound naval abilities, the Romans then beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again at the Battle of the Aegates Islands and leaving Carthage without a fleet or sufficient coin to raise one. For a maritime power the loss of their access to the Mediterranean stung financially and psychologically, and the Carthaginians sued for peace.

Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca attacked a Spanish town, [ 153 ] which had diplomatic ties to Rome. [ 154 ] Hannibal then crossed the Italian Alps to invade Italy. [ 155 ] Hannibal's successes in Italy began immediately, and reached an early climax at the Battle of Cannae , where 70,000 Romans were killed.

In three battles, the Romans managed to hold off Hannibal but then Hannibal smashed a succession of Roman consular armies. By this time Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca sought to cross the Alps into Italy and join his brother with a second army. Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively on the Metaurus River . [ 155 ] Unable to defeat Hannibal himself on Italian soil, the Romans boldly sent an army to Africa under Scipio Africanus with the intention of threatening the Carthaginian capital. Hannibal was recalled to Africa, and defeated at the Battle of Zama .

Carthage never managed to recover after the Second Punic War [ 156 ] and the Third Punic War that followed was in reality a simple punitive mission to raze the city of Carthage to the ground. [ 157 ] Carthage was almost defenceless and when besieged offered immediate surrender, conceding to a string of outrageous Roman demands. [ 158 ] The Romans refused the surrender, and the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed. Ultimately, all of Carthage's North African and Spanish territories were acquired by Rome.

[ edit ] Kingdom of Macedonia, the Greek poleis, and Illyria (215–148 BC)
Poleis and wars
Map showing the southern Balkans and western Asia Minor

Rome's preoccupation with its war with Carthage provided an opportunity for Philip V of the kingdom of Macedonia , located in the north of the Greek peninsula , to attempt to extend his power westward. Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal's camp in Italy, to negotiate an alliance as common enemies of Rome. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] However, Rome discovered the agreement when Philip's emissaries were captured by a Roman fleet. [ 159 ] The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations, but they ultimately achieved their objective of pre-occupying Philip and preventing him from aiding Hannibal.

Macedonia began to encroach on territory claimed by Greek city states in 200 BC and these states pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit Macedonia to being essentially a Roman province. Philip refused, and Rome declared war against Philip in the Second Macedonian War . [ 161 ] Ultimately, in 197 BC, the Romans defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae , [ 162 ] and Macedonia was forced to surrender.

Rome now turned its attentions to one of the Greek kingdoms, the Seleucid Empire , in the east. A Roman force defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Thermopylae and forced them to evacuate Greece. [ 163 ] The Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them in the decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia . [ 163 ] [ 164 ]

In 179 BC, Philip died [ 165 ] and his talented and ambitious son, Perseus, took his throne and showed a renewed interest in Greece. [ 166 ] Rome declared war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian War . Perseus initially had greater military success against the Romans than his father. However, as with all such ventures in this period, Rome responded by simply sending another army. The second consular army duly defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC [ 165 ] [ 167 ] and the Macedonians duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War . [ 168 ]

The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was the final war between Rome and Macedonia. The Romans swiftly defeated the Macedonians at the Second battle of Pydna . Another Roman army besieged and destroyed Corinth in 146 BC, which led to the surrender and thus conquest of Greece. [ 169 ]

[ edit ] Late Republic (147–30 BC)

[ edit ] Jugurthine War (111–104 BC)

The Jugurthine War of 111–104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of the North African kingdom of Numidia . It constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa, [ 170 ] after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. Following Jugurtha's usurpation of the throne of Numidia, [ 171 ] a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars, [ 172 ] Rome felt compelled to intervene. Jugurtha impudently bribed the Romans into accepting his usurpation. Jugurtha was finally captured not in battle but by treachery.

[ edit ] The Celtic threat (121 BC) and the new Germanic threat (113–101 BC)

In 121 BC, Rome came into contact with two Celtic tribes (from a region in modern France), both of which they defeated with apparent ease. The Cimbrian War (113–101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons [ 173 ] migrated from northern Europe into Rome's northern territories, [ 174 ] and clashed with Rome and her allies. [ 175 ] At the Battle of Aquae Sextiae and the Battle of Vercellae both tribes were virtually annihilated, which ended the threat.

[ edit ] Internal unrest (135–71 BC)

The extensive campaigning abroad by Roman generals, and the rewarding of soldiers with plunder on these campaigns, led to a general trend of soldiers becoming increasingly loyal to their generals rather than to the state. [ 176 ] Rome was also plagued by several slave uprisings during this period, in part because vast tracts of land had been given over to slave farming in which the slaves greatly outnumbered their Roman masters. In the last century BC at least twelve civil wars and rebellions occurred. This pattern did not break until Octavian (later Caesar Augustus ) ended it by becoming a successful challenger to the Senate's authority, and was made princeps (emperor).

Between 135 BC and 71 BC there were three "Servile Wars" involving slave uprisings against the Roman state, the third and final uprising was the most serious, [ 177 ] involving ultimately between 120,000 [ 178 ] and 150,000 [ 179 ] slaves under the command of the gladiator Spartacus . Additionally, in 91 BC the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy over dissent among the allies that they shared the risk of Rome's military campaigns, but not its rewards. Although they lost militarily, the allies achieved their objectives with legal proclamations which granted citizenship to more than 500,000 Italians.

The internal unrest reached its most serious state, however, in the two civil wars that were caused by the consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla at the beginning of 82 BC. In the Battle of the Colline Gate [ 180 ] at the very door of the city of Rome, a Roman army under Sulla bested an army of the Roman senate and entered the city. Sulla's actions marked a watershed in the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars which ultimately overthrew the republic, and caused the founding of the Roman Empire .

[ edit ] Conflicts with Mithridates (89–63 BC) and the Cilician pirates (67 BC)

Mithridates the Great was the ruler of Pontus , [ 181 ] a large kingdom in Asia Minor (modern Turkey), from 120 to 63 BC. Mithridates antagonised Rome by seeking to expand his kingdom, [ 181 ] and Rome for her part seemed equally keen for war and the spoils and prestige that it might bring. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] In 88 BC, Mithridates ordered the killing of a majority of the 80,000 Romans living in his kingdom. [ 183 ] The massacre was the official reason given for the commencement of hostilities in the First Mithridatic War . The Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper, but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival, Gaius Marius . A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved only a temporary lull.

The Second Mithridatic War began when Rome tried to annex a province that Mithridates claimed as his own. In the Third Mithridatic War , first Lucius Licinius Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates. [ 184 ] Mithridates was finally defeated by Pompey in the night-time Battle of the Lycus . [ 185 ]

The Mediterranean had at this time fallen into the hands of pirates, [ 185 ] largely from Cilicia . [ 186 ] The pirates not only strangled shipping lanes but also plundered many cities on the coasts of Greece and Asia. Pompey was nominated as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against the pirates. [ 184 ] [ 185 ] It took Pompey just forty days to clear the western portion of the sea of pirates and restore communication between Iberia (Spain), Africa, and Italy.

[ edit ] Caesar's early campaigns (59–50 BC)
Map of the Gallic Wars

During a term as praetor in Iberia (modern Spain), Pompey's contemporary Julius Caesar defeated two local tribes in battle. [ 187 ] Following his term as consul in 59 BC, he was then appointed to a five year term as the proconsular Governor of Cisalpine Gaul (current northern Italy), Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (the modern Balkans). [ 187 ] [ 188 ] Not content with an idle governorship, Caesar strove to find reason to invade Gaul, which would give him the dramatic military success he sought. When two local tribes began to migrate on a route that would take them near (not into) the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, Caesar had the barely sufficient excuse he needed for his Gallic Wars , fought between 58 BC and 49 BC.

Caesar defeated large armies at major battles 58 BC and 57 BC. In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions into Britain , becoming the first Roman to do so. Caesar then defeated a union of Gauls at the Battle of Alesia , [ 189 ] completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands. Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and, other than the crisis of the 3rd century, remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the western empire in 476.

[ edit ] Triumvirates and Caesarian ascension (53–30 BC)

By 59 BC an unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate was formed between Gaius Julius Caesar , Marcus Licinius Crassus , and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") to share power and influence. [ 190 ] In 53 BC, Crassus launched a Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire (modern Iraq and Iran). After initial successes, [ 191 ] he marched his army deep into the desert; [ 192 ] but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in which Crassus himself perished. The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate and, consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart. While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome that revealed that he was at best ambivalent towards Caesar [ 193 ] and perhaps now covertly allied with Caesar's political enemies. In 51 BC, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies. Caesar chose Civil War over laying down his command and facing trial.

By the spring of 49 BC, the hardened legions of Caesar crossed the river Rubicon and swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome, while Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. Afterwards Caesar turned his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Iberia (modern Spain) [ 194 ] but decided to tackle Pompey himself in Greece. [ 195 ] Pompey initially defeated Caesar, but failed to follow up on the victory, and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, [ 196 ] despite outnumbering Caesar's forces two to one, albeit with inferior quality troops. [ 197 ] Pompey fled again, this time to Egypt, where he was murdered.

Pompey's death did not result in an end to the civil war as Caesar's enemies were manifold and continued to fight on. In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army, but ultimately came back to defeat the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in the Battle of Thapsus , after which the Pompeians retreated yet again to Iberia. Caesar then defeated the combined Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda .

Caesar was now the primary figure of the Roman state, enforcing and entrenching his powers and his enemies feared that he had ambitions to become an autocratic ruler. Arguing that the Roman Republic was in danger a group of senators hatched a conspiracy and murdered Caesar in the Senate in March of 44 BC. [ 198 ] Mark Antony, Caesar's lieutenant, condemned Caesar's assassination, and war broke out between the two factions. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Caesar's adopted son and chosen heir, Gaius Octavian, was entrusted with the command of the war against him. At the Battle of Mutina Antony was defeated by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa , who were both killed.

Octavian came to terms with Caesarians Antony and Lepidus in 43 BC when the Second Triumvirate was formed. [ 72 ] In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the Battle of Philippi with Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius . Although Brutus defeated Octavian, Antony defeated Cassius, who committed suicide. Brutus joined him shortly afterwards.

However, civil war flared again when the Second Triumvirate of Octavian, Lepidus and Mark Antony failed. The ambitious Octavian built a power base of patronage and then launched a campaign against Mark Antony. [ 198 ] At the naval Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece, Octavian decisively defeated Antony and Cleopatra . Octavian was granted a series of special powers including sole "imperium" within the city of Rome, permanent consular powers and credit for every Roman military victory, since all future generals were assumed to be acting under his command. In 27 BC Octavian was granted the use of the names "Augustus" and "Princeps" indicating his primary status above all other Romans, and he adopted the title "Imperator Caesar" making him the first Roman Emperor. [ 199 ]

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  182. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome , p. 76
  183. ^ Grant, The History of Rome , p. 158
  184. ^ a b Lane Fox, The Classical World , p. 363
  185. ^ a b c Plutarch, Lives , Pompey
  186. ^ Florus, The Epitome of Roman history , Book 3, ch. 6
  187. ^ a b Plutarch, Lives , Caesar
  188. ^ Santosuosso, Storming the Heavens , p. 58
  189. ^ Santosuosso, Storming the Heavens , p. 62 See also: Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome , p. 212
  190. ^ Cantor, Antiquity , p. 168
  191. ^ Matyszak, The Enemies of Rome , p. 133
  192. ^ Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans , p. 266
  193. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome , p. 214
  194. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome , p. 217
  195. ^ Julius Caesar, The Civil War , 81–92 See also: Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome , p. 218
  196. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome , p. 227 See also: Lane Fox, The Classical World , p. 403
  197. ^ Holland, Rubicon , p. 312
  198. ^ a b Cantor, Antiquity , p. 170
  199. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire , p. 7

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