Hinduismo

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"Dancing Ganesh Tíbet Central siglo XV colores en algodón Altura:.... 68 centímetros". [1] Esta forma también se conoce como Maharakta ("The Great Red One"). [2]

El hinduismo es la predominante e indígenas tradición religiosa [3] del subcontinente indio . El hinduismo es conocido por sus seguidores [4] como Sanatana Dharma (uno en sánscrito que significa la frase "la eterna ley "," la ley eterna que sostiene / mantiene / seguramente conserva " [5] [6] ), entre muchas otras expresiones. [7 ] [8] Generic "tipos" del hinduismo que tratan de adaptarse a una variedad de puntos de vista complejo período de folk y hinduismo védico de bhakti tradición, como en vaisnavismo . Entre otras prácticas y filosofías, el hinduismo incluye un amplio espectro de leyes y reglamentos de la "moralidad cotidiana", basada en el concepto de karma , el dharma , y las normas sociales como el matrimonio hindú costumbres . El hinduismo otorga un alto grado de libertad de credo y culto. Además, el concepto de herejía está ausente.

El hinduismo está formado por diversas tradiciones y no tiene un fundador único. [9] Entre sus raíces es la religión védica histórica de la Edad de Hierro India y, como tal, el hinduismo es a menudo llamado " la religión más antigua de vida " [10] o la más antigua de vida " las grandes religiones "en el mundo. [11] [12] [13] [14]

Un gran conjunto de textos se clasifica como hindúes, divididos en Sruti ("revelado") y Smriti textos ("recordar"). Tales textos se trata la teología , la filosofía y la mitología , y proporcionar información sobre la práctica de Dharma (la vida religiosa). Entre estos textos, los Vedas son los principales en la autoridad, importancia y antigüedad. Otras escrituras más importantes incluyen el Upanishads , Puranas y los poemas épicos Mahabharata y R?m?ya?a . El Bhagavad Gita , un tratado sincrética del Mahabharata, es de especial importancia. Combina Vedanta , Yoga , y algunos Samkhya la filosofía en su examen de buena conducta y la vida. [15]

Etimología

Valmiki , un contemporáneo de Rama compone el Ramayana .

La palabra hindú deriva de la sánscrito Sindhu palabra, la denominación histórica local para el río Indo en la parte noroeste del subcontinente indio . [16] y se menciona por primera vez en el Rig Veda [17]

La palabra hindú fue utilizado por primera vez por los invasores árabes y luego se fue hacia el oeste por el árabe al-Hind término se refiere a la tierra de las personas que viven al otro lado del río Indo. [18] y el hindú término persa se ??refiere a todos los indios. En el siglo 13, Hindustan surgido como una alternativa popular nombre de la India , lo que significa la "tierra de los hindúes". [19]

Originalmente, el hindú era un término secular, que se utiliza para describir a todos los habitantes y las culturas del subcontinente indio (o Hindustan), independientemente de su afiliación religiosa. También se presenta esporádicamente en los textos sánscritos como el Rajataranginis después de Cachemira (Hinduka, c. 1450), algunos décima sexta a décima octava del siglo bengalí Gaudiya Vaishnava textos, incluyendo Chaitanya Charitamrita y Chaitanya Bhagavata , por lo general a diferencia de los hindúes con Yavanas o mlecchas . [20 ] Fue sólo hacia el final del siglo 18 que los comerciantes y colonos europeos que se refiere colectivamente a los seguidores de religiones de la India como los hindúes. Finalmente, se llegó a definir una identidad religiosa que precisamente incluye a cualquier persona de origen indio que no practicaban religiones abrahámicas , ni no védico religiones de la India, como el jainismo , el budismo , el sijismo , o las religiones tribales (Adivasi), lo que abarca una amplia gama de creencias y prácticas religiosas relacionadas con la "Sanatana Dharma". [21] [22]

El término hinduismo se introdujo en el idioma Inglés en el siglo 19 para referirse a las tradiciones religiosas, filosóficas, culturales y nativo de la India. [23]

Acerca del Dharma

Este "poder" que se encuentra detrás de la naturaleza y que mantiene todo en equilibrio se convirtió en un precursor natural de la idea de Dharma. La idea de rta puso la primera piedra de la atribución implícita dharma a la "realidad última" del universo que nos rodea, en el clásico hinduismo védico el siguiente verso del Rig-Veda es un ejemplo donde rta se menciona:

O Indra, nos conduzca por el camino de la Rta, en el camino correcto en todos los males. - ( RV 10 .133.6)

La transición de la rta a la idea moderna de dharma se produce en el Upanishad Brihadaranyaka . Los Upanishads vio dharma como el principio universal de la ley, el orden, la armonía, todo con toda verdad, que surgieron primero de Brahman . Que actúa como principio regulador moral del universo. Que está sentado (la verdad), un principio fundamental del hinduismo. Esto se remonta a la concepción del Rig Veda que "Ekam Sat," (la verdad es una), de la idea de que Brahman es " Satchitánanda "(Verdad-Conciencia-Bienaventuranza). Dharma no es sólo la ley, o la armonía, es la pura realidad. En las propias palabras del Brihadaranyaka es:

De cierto, de lo que es Dharma es la verdad, tanto que se dice de un hombre que dice la verdad ", habla del Dharma"

o de un hombre que habla el Dharma, "dice la verdad." De cierto, de estas dos cosas son lo mismo.

- (Brh. Upanishad, 1.4.14) ( 2 )

En el Mahabharata , Krishna define como dharma,

"Dhaaranaad dharma dad aahur dharmena vidhrtaah prajaah, Yat syaad dhaarana sanyuktam sa iti nishchayah dharma"

es decir, el Dharma sostiene los asuntos de este mundo y de otro mundo. (MBH 12.110.11).

La palabra significa Sanatana encarnación permanente (del dharma). Dharma significa que no tiene ni principio ni fin [24]

Historia

Sagrado Monte Kailash en el Tíbet es considerado como la morada espiritual de Shiva .
El llamado Shiva Pashupati sello
Marina shoulderboard de capellán militar hindú, Sudáfrica militares

La evidencia más temprana de la religión prehistórica, en la fecha de regreso a la India a finales del Neolítico en el principios de Harappa período (5500-2600 aC). [25] [26] Las creencias y prácticas de la era pre-clásico (1500-500 aC) se llaman la " religión védica histórica ". El hinduismo moderno surgió de los Vedas, el más antiguo de los cuales es el Rig Veda , que data de 1700-1100 antes de Cristo. [27] El centro de Vedas en la adoración de deidades como Indra , Varuna y Agni , y en el Soma ritual. Sacrificios de fuego, llamado yajña se llevaron a cabo, y cantaron mantras védicos, pero no los templos o los ídolos son conocidos. [28]

Los principales epopeyas en sánscrito, el Ramayana y el Mahabharata , se recopilaron durante un período prolongado durante los últimos siglos aC y los primeros siglos CE [ cita requerida ]. Contienen historias mitológicas sobre los gobernantes y las guerras de la antigua India, y se intercalan con los tratados religiosos y filosóficos. Los Puranas después relatar cuentos acerca de los devas y devis , sus interacciones con los seres humanos y sus batallas contra el rakshasa .

Tres grandes movimientos sustentado la naissance de una nueva época del pensamiento hindú: la aparición y propagación de los Upanishads, Jaina , y budistas . pensamiento filosófico-religiosa a través de la masa de tierra más amplio India [29] Mahavira (24 Tirthankar de los jainistas) y Buda (fundador de El budismo ) enseñó que para lograr el moksha o nirvana, uno no tiene que aceptar la autoridad de los Vedas o el sistema de castas. Buda fue un paso más allá y afirmó que la existencia de un yo / alma o Dios no era necesario. [30] El budismo alcanzó su punto máximo durante el reinado de Asoka el Grande del Imperio Maurya , quien unificó el subcontinente indio en la 3 ª siglo aC. Después de 200 escuelas de pensamiento CE varias fueron codificadas formalmente en la filosofía india , incluyendo Samkhya , Yoga , Nyaya , Vaisheshika , Purva Mimamsa- y Vedanta . [31] Charvaka , el fundador de una escuela materialista ateo, pasó a primer plano en el norte de la India en el siglo VI aC. [32]

La cultura sánscrita entró en declive después de la final del periodo Gupta . La Edad Media Puranas ayudó a establecer una corriente religiosa de las sociedades tribales pre-alfabetizados sometidos a la aculturación . Los principios del hinduismo y brahmánica de la Dharmashastras sufrió una transformación radical en las manos de los compositores Purana, dando como resultado el surgimiento de una corriente "hinduismo", que eclipsó todas las tradiciones anteriores. [33]

Aunque el Islam llegó a la India en el siglo 7, con la llegada de los comerciantes árabes y la conquista de Sindh, que comenzó a convertirse en una religión importante durante la última conquista musulmana en el subcontinente indio . [32] Durante este período, el budismo disminuyó rápidamente y muchos Los hindúes fueron convertidos a la fuerza para el Islam . [34] [35] [36] Numerosos gobernantes musulmanes o los generales del ejército, como Aurangzeb y Malik Kufur destruyeron templos hindúes [37] [38] [39] y perseguido a los no musulmanes , sin embargo algunos, como Akbar , eran más tolerantes. El hinduismo sufrió profundas transformaciones, en gran parte debido a la influencia de los destacados profesores de Ramanuja , Madhva , y Chaitanya . [32] Los seguidores del movimiento de Bhakti se alejó de la idea abstracta de Brahman , que el filósofo Adi Shankara consolidó un par de siglos antes de , con la devoción emocional, apasionado hacia el más accesible Avatares , especialmente Krishna y Rama. [40]

Las más antiguas tradiciones védicas muestran fuertes similitudes con la pre-Zoroastrian proto-indo-iraníes la religión y otros indoeuropeos religiones. Por ejemplo, el ?gvedic Dyaus deidad, considerado como el padre de las otras deidades, está lingüísticamente emparentado con Zeus , el rey de los dioses en la mitología griega , Iovis (Génesis de Júpiter), el rey de los dioses en la mitología romana , y Tiu / Ziu en la mitología germánica . Otras deidades védicas también han afines con las que se encuentran en otros indoeuropeos mitologías pueblos de habla », véase el proto-indo-europea la religión y la comparación de los griegos y los dioses hindúes . [41]

Indología como una disciplina académica de estudiar la cultura indígena desde una perspectiva europea se estableció en el siglo 19, liderada por los estudiosos como Max Müller y Juan Woodroffe . Trajeron védica , Puranas y tántrico literatura y la filosofía de Europa y los Estados Unidos . Al mismo tiempo, las sociedades como el Brahmo y la Sociedad Teosófica intentó reconciliar y el fusible de Abraham y filosofías Dhármicas, tratando de instituir una reforma social. Este período vio el surgimiento de movimientos que, aunque muy innovadores, tienen sus raíces en la tradición indígena. Se basaban en las personalidades y las enseñanzas de los individuos, al igual que Ramakrishna y Ramana Maharshi . Prominentes filósofos hindúes, incluyendo Aurobindo y Prabhupada (fundador de ISKCON ), traducido, reformulados y presentados los textos fundamentales del hinduismo para el público contemporáneo de nuevas interacciones, los seguidores de atraer la atención y en la India y el extranjero. Otros, como Vivekananda , Yogananda Paramahansa , BKS Iyengar y Swami Rama también han contribuido en el aumento de los perfiles de Yoga y Vedanta en Occidente. Hoy en día los movimientos modernos, tales como ISKCON y la fe Swaminarayan , atraer a una gran cantidad de seguidores en todo el mundo. [42]

Tipología

El Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple en Nueva Delhi , según el Guinness World Records es la más grande del mundo completa templo hindú [43]

El hinduismo como se le conoce comúnmente se puede subdividir en una serie de grandes corrientes. De la división histórica en seis darshanas , sólo dos escuelas, Vedanta y Yoga sobrevivir. Las principales divisiones del hinduismo hoy vaisnavismo , Shaivismo , Smartismo y Shaktismo . [44] El hinduismo también reconoce numerosos seres divinos subordinados al Ser Supremo o los considera inferiores manifestaciones de la misma. [45] Otras características notables incluyen la creencia en la reencarnación y karma , así como en el deber personal, o dharma .

McDaniel (2007) distingue seis genérico de "tipos" del hinduismo, en un intento de adaptarse a una variedad de puntos de vista sobre un tema bastante complejo: [46]

Definiciones

El Triveni Sangam , o la intersección de río Yamuna, Ganges y el mítico río Saraswati.

El hinduismo no tiene un "sistema unificado de creencias codificadas en la declaración de fe o credo ", [47] sino que es un término genérico que comprende la pluralidad de los fenómenos religiosos de origen y sobre la base de las tradiciones védicas . [48] [49] [ 50] [51]

La característica de tolerancia completa a las diferencias en las creencias, y la apertura del hinduismo, hace que sea difícil de definir como una religión de acuerdo a las concepciones tradicionales de Occidente. [52] Para sus partidarios, el hinduismo es la forma tradicional de vida, [53] y por la amplia gama de tradiciones e ideas incorporadas dentro o cubierto por la misma, llegando a una definición amplia del término es problemático. [47] Aunque a veces se refiere como una religión, el hinduismo es más a menudo se define como una tradición religiosa. [3] Se trata de por lo tanto, descrita como la más antigua de las religiones del mundo, y las más diversas. [11] [54] [55] [56] La mayoría de las tradiciones hindúes veneran a un cuerpo de religión o la literatura sagrada , los Vedas , aunque hay excepciones. Algunas tradiciones religiosas hindúes respecto rituales particulares como esencial para la salvación, sino una variedad de puntos de vista sobre este coexistir. Algunas filosofías hindúes postular un teísta ontología de la creación, de sustento, y de la destrucción del universo, sin embargo, algunos hindúes son ateos . El hinduismo se caracteriza a veces por la creencia en la reencarnación ( samsara ), determinado por la ley del karma , y la idea de que la salvación es la liberación de este ciclo de nacimiento y la muerte repetidos. Sin embargo, las otras religiones de la región, tales como el budismo , el jainismo y el sijismo , también creen en el karma, fuera del ámbito del hinduismo. [47] por lo tanto, el hinduismo es considerado como el más complejo de toda la vida, las religiones históricas del mundo. [57 ] A pesar de su complejidad, el hinduismo no es sólo una de las religiones más grande numéricamente, pero también es la tradición más antigua de vida mayor en la tierra, con raíces que se remontan a la prehistoria. [58]

Una definición del hinduismo, dado por el primer vicepresidente de la India, que también era un destacado teólogo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , establece que el hinduismo no es "sólo una fe", pero en sí misma está relacionada con la unión de la razón y la intuición . Radhakrishnan dice explícitamente que el hinduismo no se puede definir, pero es sólo para ser experimentado. [59] Igualmente, algunos académicos sugieren que el hinduismo puede ser visto como una categoría de "bordes borrosos", y no como una entidad bien definida y rígida. Algunas formas de expresión religiosa son fundamentales para el hinduismo, mientras que otros no son tan central, pero aún permanecen dentro de la categoría. Sobre esta base, Ferro-Luzzi ha desarrollado un "enfoque prototipo teoría" a la definición del hinduismo. [60]

Problemas con la definición única de lo que realmente se entiende por "hinduismo" el término a menudo se atribuyen al hecho de que el hinduismo no tiene un fundador histórico único o común. El hinduismo, o como dicen algunos "Hinduisms, 'no tiene un sistema único de salvación y tiene diferentes objetivos de acuerdo a cada secta o denominación. Las formas de la religión védica no son vistos como una alternativa al hinduismo, sino como su forma más temprana, y hay poca justificación para las divisiones se encuentran en mucha escritura occidental académica entre vedismo , el brahmanismo y el hinduismo. [14] [61]

Una definición del hinduismo se complica aún más por el uso frecuente de la palabra " fe "como sinónimo de" religión ". [47] Algunos académicos [62] y muchos médicos se refieren al hinduismo con una definición nativa, como Sanatana Dharma, un sánscrito frase que significa "la eterna ley ", o" el camino eterno ". [7] [63]

Creencias

Templo tallado en Hoysaleswara templo representa el Trimurti : Brahma , Shiva y Vishnu .

El hinduismo se refiere a una corriente religiosa que se desarrolló orgánicamente y se extiende sobre un extenso territorio marcado por una importante diversidad étnica y cultural. Esta corriente evolucionó tanto por la innovación desde dentro, y por la asimilación de las tradiciones y cultos externos en el redil hindú. El resultado es una enorme variedad de tradiciones religiosas, que van desde innumerables sectas pequeñas, poco sofisticadas a los principales movimientos religiosos, con millones de seguidores repartidos en todo el subcontinente. La identificación del hinduismo como religión independiente y separada del budismo o el jainismo consecuencia, gira en torno a la afirmación de sus seguidores que es tal. [64]

Temas prominentes en las creencias hindúes incluyen (pero no se limitan a), Dharma (ética / derechos), Samsara (el ciclo continuo de nacimiento, vida, muerte y renacimiento), Karma (acción y reacción posterior), Moksha (la liberación del samsara) , y las diferentes Yogas (caminos o prácticas). [65]

Concepto de Dios

Krishna muestra su Vishvarupa (forma universal) a Arjuna en el campo de batalla de Kurukshetra.

El hinduismo es un sistema diverso de pensamiento con las creencias que abarcan el monoteísmo , el politeísmo , panteísmo , panteísmo , monismo , el ateísmo , el agnosticismo , el gnosticismo , entre otros, [66] [67] [68] [69] y su concepto de Dios es compleja y depende de cada individuo y de la tradición y la filosofía seguida. Se refiere a veces como henoteísta (es decir, con la participación devoción a un solo dios, aceptando la existencia de otros), pero dicho término es una generalización excesiva. [70]

El Rig Veda , la escritura más antigua y la base de la filosofía hindú no tiene una visión restrictiva sobre la cuestión fundamental de Dios y la creación del universo. Más bien, permite a la persona buscar y descubrir las respuestas en la búsqueda de la vida. Nasadiya Sukta (Creación Himno) del Rig Veda, así ha dicho [71] [72] :

¿Quién sabe?
¿Quién de ustedes va a anunciar?
¿De dónde se produce? ¿De dónde es esta creación?
Los dioses que vino después, con la creación de este universo.
¿Quién, pues sabe de dónde ha surgido?

La mayoría de los hindúes creen que el espíritu o el alma - el verdadero "yo" de cada persona, llamado el Atman - es eterno. [73] De acuerdo con las teologías monista / panteísta del hinduismo (como Advaita Vedanta de la escuela), este Atman es en última instancia indistinta de Brahman , el espíritu supremo. Por lo tanto, estas escuelas se les llama no-dualista . [74] El objetivo de la vida, de acuerdo con la escuela Advaita, es darse cuenta de que uno de Atman es idéntico a Brahman, el alma suprema. [75] El Estado Upanishads que todo el que llega a ser plenamente conscientes del Atman como el núcleo más íntimo de uno mismo se da cuenta de una identidad con Brahman y por lo tanto llega a moksha (la liberación o la libertad). [73] [76]

Las escuelas de Vedanta y Nyaya establece que el karma se demuestra la existencia de Dios. [77] [78] Nyaya ser la escuela de la lógica , hace que la "lógica" la inferencia de que el universo es un efecto y que debe tener un creador. [ 79]

Dualista las escuelas (ver Dvaita y Bhakti ) Brahman entender como un Ser Supremo que tiene personalidad, y ellos lo adoran o lo que ella, como Vishnu , Brahma , Shiva o Shakti , dependiendo de la secta. El Atman es dependiente de Dios, mientras que moksha depende del amor hacia Dios y la gracia de Dios. [80] Cuando Dios es visto como el ser supremo personal (y no como el principio infinito), Dios se llama Ishvara ("El Señor") , [81] Bhagavan ("El Auspicioso" [81] ) o Parameshwara ("El Señor Supremo" [81] ). [74] Sin embargo, las interpretaciones varían de Ishvara, que van desde la no creencia en Ishvara por los seguidores de Mimamsakas , a la identificación de Brahman y Ishvara como uno, como en el Advaita. [74] En la mayoría de las tradiciones de Vaishnavismo es Vishnu, Dios, y el texto de las escrituras Vaishnava identificar a este ser como Krishna , a veces se denomina svayam Bhagavan .

En Bhaagawada Gita, por ejemplo, Dios es el único depositario de la Gunas (cualidades) también, como [82]

Sus manos y pies están en todas partes, mira en todas partes y por todos lados,

Sus ojos, las orejas y el punto de cara a todas las direcciones, y los tres mundos están rodeados por estos.

Ateo doctrinas dominan las escuelas hindúes como el Samkhya y Mimamsa . [83] El S?tra S??khyapravacana de Samkhya afirma que la existencia de Dios ( Ishvara ) no puede ser probado y por lo tanto no se puede admitir que existe. [84] Samkhya sostienen que un Dios inmutable no puede ser el fuente de un mundo siempre cambiante. Dice que Dios era una hipótesis necesaria metafísica exigido por las circunstancias. [85] Los partidarios de la escuela de Mimamsa , que se basa en los rituales y la ortopraxis afirma que las pruebas que supuestamente demuestran la existencia de Dios no era suficiente. Ellos argumentan que no hay necesidad de postular un creador para el mundo, al igual que no hay necesidad de un autor para componer el Vedas o un Dios para validar los rituales. [86] Mimamsa considera los dioses nombrados en el Vedas no tienen existencia aparte de los mantras que hablan de sus nombres. A este respecto, el poder de los mantras es lo que se ve como el poder de los dioses. [87]

Devas y avatares

Detalle de la Prang Phra, la torre central del Wat Arun ("Templo del amanecer") en Bangkok , Tailandia - mostrando Indra en su Erawan tres cabezas de elefante ( Airavata )
Krishna , la octava encarnación ( Avatar ) de Vishnu o Bhagavan svayam , adorado a través de una serie de tradiciones

Las escrituras hindúes se refieren a entidades celestiales llamados Devas (o Devi en forma femenina; devata se utiliza como sinónimo de Deva en Hindi)., "los brillantes", que puede ser traducido al Inglés como "dioses" o "seres celestiales" [88] Los devas son una parte integral de la cultura hindú y se representan en el arte , la arquitectura y por medio de iconos , y las historias mitológicas de ellos están relacionados en las Escrituras, especialmente en la poesía épica india y los Puranas . Son, sin embargo, a menudo distinguen de Ishvara , un supremo dios personal, con muchos Ishvara hindúes adoran en una de sus manifestaciones particulares (deidades supuestamente independiente) como su devata ista , o elegido ideal. [89] [90] La elección es un cuestión de preferencia individual, [91] y de las tradiciones regionales y la familia. [91]

Epopeyas hindúes y los Puranas se refieren varios episodios de la bajada de Dios a la Tierra en forma corpórea para restaurar el dharma a la sociedad y para guiar a los seres humanos a moksha. Esta encarnación se llama Avatar . Los avatares más destacados son de Vishnu y son Rama (el protagonista en el Ramayana ) y Krishna (una figura central en la epopeya Mahabharata ).

Karma y el samsara

Karma se traduce literalmente como la acción, el trabajo, o de hecho, [92] y puede ser descrito como la "ley moral de causa y efecto". [93] Según los Upanishads un individuo, conocido como el jiva-atma, desarrolla sanskaras (impresiones ) de las acciones, ya sean físicos o mentales. El sharira linga, un cuerpo más sutil que la física, pero menos sutil que el alma, conserva las impresiones, llevándolos más en la próxima vida, el establecimiento de una trayectoria única para el individuo. [94] Por lo tanto, el concepto de neutralidad universal, , y que nunca falla karma intrínsecamente relacionada con la reencarnación , así como a la propia personalidad, características, y la familia. Karma une los conceptos de libre albedrío y el destino .

Este ciclo de acción, reacción, del nacimiento, la muerte y el renacimiento es un continuo llamado samsara . La idea de la reencarnación y el karma es una premisa importante en el pensamiento hindú. El Bhagavad Gita dice:

" Como una persona se pone ropa nueva y desecha viejos y la ropa desgarrada,

igualmente entra en un alma encarnada nuevos cuerpos materiales, dejando los cuerpos de edad. (BG 2:22) [95]

"

Samsara ofrece placeres efímeros, que llevan a la gente a desear el renacimiento con el fin de disfrutar de los placeres de un cuerpo perecedero. Sin embargo, la evasión del mundo del samsara a través de moksha se cree que para asegurar la felicidad y una paz duraderas. [96] [97] Se cree que después de varias reencarnaciones, un atman finalmente busca la unidad con el espíritu cósmico (Brahman / Paramatman).

El objetivo último de la vida, conocido como moksha, nirvana o samadhi , se entiende de varias maneras diferentes: como la realización de su unión con Dios, como la realización de su relación eterna con Dios; realización de la unidad de toda la existencia; perfecto el desinterés y el conocimiento del Ser, como el logro de la paz mental perfecta, y el desprendimiento de los deseos mundanos. Tal realización libera del samsara, y termina el ciclo de renacimiento. [98] [99] Debido a la creencia en la indestructibilidad del alma, [100] la muerte se considera insignificante en relación con el ser cósmico. [101] Desde allí, una persona que no tiene el deseo o la ambición y la izquierda no las responsabilidades que queda en la vida o un afectado por una enfermedad terminal puede aceptar la muerte por Prayopavesa . [102]

La conceptualización exacta de moksha difiere entre las distintas escuelas de pensamiento hindú. Por ejemplo, Advaita Vedanta sostiene que después de alcanzar moksha un atman ya no se identifica con un individuo, sino como idéntico a Brahman en todos los aspectos. Los seguidores de Dvaita (dual) las escuelas se identifican como parte de Brahman, y después de alcanzar moksha esperar a pasar la eternidad en una loka (cielo), [103] en compañía de su forma elegida de Ishvara. Por lo tanto, se dice que los seguidores de dvaita deseo de "sabor del azúcar", mientras que los seguidores de Advaita deseo de "la fabricación de azúcar". [104]

Objetivos de la vida humana

Desde Ramayana

Classical Hindu thought accepts the following objectives of human life, that which is sought as human purpose, aim, or end, is known as the puru??rtha s : [ 105 ] [ 106 ]

Yoga

A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation.

In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Texts dedicated to Yoga include the Bhagavad Gita, the Yoga Sutras , the Hatha Yoga Pradipika , and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Paths that one can follow to achieve the spiritual goal of life ( moksha , samadhi or nirvana ) include:

An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Some devotional schools teach that bhakti is the only practical path to achieve spiritual perfection for most people, based on their belief that the world is currently in the Kali Yuga (one of four epochs which are part of the Yuga cycle). [ 108 ] Practice of one yoga does not exclude others. Many schools believe that the different yogas naturally blend into and aid other yogas. For example, the practice of jnana yoga , is thought to inevitably lead to pure love (the goal of bhakti yoga ), and vice versa. [ 109 ] Someone practicing deep meditation (such as in raja yoga ) must embody the core principles of karma yoga , jnana yoga and bhakti yoga , whether directly or indirectly. [ 107 ] [ 110 ]

Practices

The visarjan ( nimarjan ) ceremony of Ganesha during the Chaturthi festival.

Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst of everyday life. Hindus can engage in p?j? (worship or veneration), [ 81 ] either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen form(s) of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory, [ 111 ] and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons ( murtis ). The icon serves as a tangible link between the worshiper and God. [ 112 ] The image is often considered a manifestation of God, since God is immanent. The Padma Purana states that the m?rti is not to be thought of as mere stone or wood but as a manifest form of the Divinity. [ 113 ] A few Hindu sects, such as the ?rya Sam?j , do not believe in worshiping God through icons.

The sacred Tulsi plant in front of the house.

Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Parabrahman ) and the Swastika sign (which symbolizes auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as tilaka identify a follower of the faith. Hinduism associates many symbols, which include the lotus, chakra and veena , with particular deities.

Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities. Many devotees perform morning ablutions at the bank of a sacred river while chanting the Gayatri Mantra or Mahamrityunjaya mantras. [ 114 ] The epic Mahabharata extols Japa (ritualistic chanting) as the greatest duty in the Kali Yuga (what Hindus believe to be the current age). [ 115 ] Many adopt Japa as their primary spiritual practice. [ 115 ]

Rituals

Traditional diyas and other prayer items during a Hindu wedding ceremony.

The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis. [ 116 ] Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home. [ 117 ] but observation of rituals greatly vary among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns , meditation , chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc. [ 117 ] A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralised before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action. [ 117 ] Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world. [ 117 ] Vedic rites of fire-oblation ( yajna ) are now only occasional practices, although they are highly revered in theory. In Hindu wedding and burial ceremonies, however, the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras are still the norm. [ 118 ] The rituals, upacharas , change with time. For instance, in the past few hundred years some rituals, such as sacred dance and music offerings in the standard Sodasa Upacharas set prescribed by the Agama Shastra , were replaced by the offerings of rice and sweets.

Occasions like birth, marriage, and death involve what are often elaborate sets of religious customs. In Hinduism, life-cycle rituals include Annaprashan (a baby's first intake of solid food), Upanayanam ("sacred thread ceremony" undergone by upper-caste children at their initiation into formal education) and ?r?ddha (ritual of treating people to a meal in return for prayers to 'God' to give peace to the soul of the deceased). [ 119 ] [ 120 ] For most people in India, the betrothal of the young couple and the exact date and time of the wedding are matters decided by the parents in consultation with astrologers. [ 119 ] On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except sanyasis , hijra , and children under five. [ 121 ] Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre .

Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage to kedarnath

Hindus recognise several Indian holy cities, including Allahabad , Haridwar , Varanasi , and Vrindavan . Notable temple cities include Puri , which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration;and Katra , home to the Vaishno Devi temple. The four holy sites Puri , Rameswaram , Dwarka , and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath , Kedarnath , Gangotri , and Yamunotri ) compose the Char Dham ( four abodes ) pilgrimage circuit. The Kumbh Mela (the "pitcher festival") is one of the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages that is held every four years; the location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik , and Ujjain . Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas , where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya .Two comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Tirumala - Tirupati , home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple ; Sabarimala ,where Swami Ayyappan is worshipped. While there are different yet similar pilgrimage routes in different parts of India all are respected equally well according to the universality of Hinduism.

Pilgrimage is not mandatory in Hinduism, though many adherents undertake them [ 122 ]

Festivals

Garba during navratri festivities in Ahmedabad
Durga Puja celebrations in Dhakeshwari National Temple , Dhaka , Bangladesh

Hindu festivals ( Sanskrit : Utsava ; literally: "to lift higher") are considered as symbolic rituals that beautifully weave individual and social life to dharma . [ 123 ] Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year. The Hindu calendar usually prescribe their dates.

The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, often coinciding with seasonal changes. There are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent .

Some widely observed Hindu festivals are

Escrituras

Hinduism is based on "the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times". [ 124 ] [ 125 ] The scriptures were transmitted orally in verse form to aid memorization, for many centuries before they were written down. [ 126 ] Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the canon. In post-Vedic and current Hindu belief, most Hindu scriptures are not typically interpreted literally. More importance is attached to the ethics and metaphorical meanings derived from them. [ 25 ] Most sacred texts are in Sanskrit . The texts are classified into two classes: Shruti and Smriti .

Shruti

The Rig Veda is one of the oldest religious texts . This Rig Veda manuscript is in Devanagari
The Naradeya Purana describes the mechanics of the cosmos. Depicted here are Vishnu with his consort Lakshmi resting on Shesha Nag . Narada and Brahma are also pictured.
Vyasa narrating the Mahabharata to Ganesha, his scribe, Angkor Wat

Shruti (lit: that which is heard) [ 127 ] primarily refers to the Vedas , which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures. While many Hindus revere the Vedas as eternal truths revealed to ancient sages ( ??i s ), [ 125 ] some devotees do not associate the creation of the Vedas with a god or person. They are thought of as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages. [ 124 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] Hindus believe that because the spiritual truths of the Vedas are eternal, they continue to be expressed in new ways. [ 130 ]

There are four Vedas (called ?g -, S?ma-, Yajus- and Atharva- ). The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. [ 131 ] Each Veda is divided into four parts: the primary one, the Veda proper , being the Sa?hit? , which contains sacred mantras . The other three parts form a three-tier ensemble of commentaries, usually in prose and are believed to be slightly later in age than the Sa?hit? . These are: the Br?hma?as , ?ra?yakas , and the Upanishads . The first two parts were subsequently called the Karmak???a (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the Jñ?nak???a (knowledge portion). [ 132 ] While the Vedas focus on rituals, the Upanishads focus on spiritual insight and philosophical teachings, and discuss Brahman and reincarnation . [ 25 ] [ 133 ] [ 134 ]

A well known shloka from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is:

? ???? ?? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????????? ??
?????????????? ??? ? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??

– ?????????? ??????? 1.3.28.

IAST :

om asato m? sadgamaya | tamaso m? jyotirgamaya ||
m?tyor m? am?ta? gamaya | om ??nti ??nti ??nti ||

– b?had?ra?yaka upani?ada 1.3.28

Translation :

Lead Us From the Unreal To the Real |
Lead Us From Darkness To Light ||
Lead Us From Death To Immortality |
OM Let There Be Peace Peace Peace.||

– Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28.

Smritis

Hindu texts other than the Shrutis are collectively called the Smritis (memory). The most notable of the smritis are the epics , which consist of the Mah?bh?rata and the R?m?ya?a . The Bhagavad G?t? is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains philosophical teachings from Krishna , an incarnation of Vishnu , told to the prince Arjuna on the eve of a great war. The Bhagavad G?t? , spoken by Krishna , is described as the essence of the Vedas. [ 135 ] However Gita, sometimes called Gitopanishad , is more often placed in the Shruti , category, being Upanishadic in content. [ 136 ] Pur??a s , which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives come under smritis. Other texts include Dev? Mah?tmya , the Tantras , the Yoga Sutras , Tirumantiram , Shiva Sutras and the Hindu ?gamas . A more controversial text, the Manusmriti , is a prescriptive lawbook which lays the societal codes of social stratification which later evolved into the Indian caste system . [ 137 ]

A well known verse from Bhagavad Gita describing a concept in Karma Yoga is explained as follows [ 138 ] [ 139 ]

To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits;

let not the fruits of action be thy motive; neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction. (2.47)

Demografía

Hinduism - Percentage by country

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Hinduism by country

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Hinduism is a major religion in India and according to 2001 census, Hinduism was followed by around 80% of population in India. [ 140 ] Other significant populations are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (14 million) and the Indonesian island of Bali (3.3 million).

Countries with the greatest proportion of Hindus from Hinduism by country (as of 2008 ):

  1. Nepal 86.5% [ 141 ]
  2. India 82%
  3. Mauritius 54% [ 142 ]
  4. Guyana 28% [ 143 ]
  5. Fiji 27.9% [ 144 ]
  6. Bhutan 25% [ 145 ]
  7. Trinidad and Tobago 22.5%
  8. Suriname 20% [ 146 ]
  9. Sri Lanka 15% [ 147 ]
  10. Bangladesh 9% [ 148 ]
  11. Qatar 7.2%
  12. Réunion 6.7%
  13. Malaysia 6.3% [ 149 ]
  14. Bahrain 6.25%
  15. Kuwait 6%
  16. United Arab Emirates 5%
  17. Singapore 4%
  18. Oman 3%
  19. Belize 2.3%
  20. Seychelles 2.1% [ 150 ]

Demographically, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion , after Christianity and Islam .

Sociedad

Denominations

The Vaishnava Tirumala Venkateswara Temple the most visited and richest Hindu temple in the world.

Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination. [ 151 ] However, academics categorize contemporary Hinduism into four major denominations: Vaishnavism , Shaivism , Shaktism and Smartism . The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god.

Vaishnavas worship Vishnu as the supreme God; Shaivites worship Shiva as the supreme; Shaktas worship Shakti (power) personified through a female divinity or Mother Goddess , Devi ; while Smartas believe in the essential oneness of five ( panchadeva ) or six ( Shanmata , as Tamil Hindus add Skanda ) [ 152 ] deities as personifications of the Supreme.

The Western conception of what Hinduism is has been defined by the Smarta view; many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers. [ 153 ]

Other denominations like Ganapatya (the cult of Ganesha ) and Saura ( Sun worship) are not so widespread.

There are movements that are not easily placed in any of the above categories, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati 's Arya Samaj , which rejects image worship and veneration of multiple deities. It focuses on the Vedas and the Vedic fire sacrifices ( yajña ).

The Tantric traditions have various sects, as Banerji observes:

" Tantras are ... also divided as ?stika or Vedic and n?stika or non-Vedic. In accordance with the predominance of the deity the ?stika works are again divided as ??kta (Shakta), ?aiva (Shaiva), Saura, G??apatya and Vai??ava (Vaishnava). [ 154 ] "

Ashramas

A Balmiki Ashram

Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four ?shrama s (phases or stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The first part of one's life, Brahmacharya , the stage as a student, is spent in celibate, controlled, sober and pure contemplation under the guidance of a Guru , building up the mind for spiritual knowledge. Grihastha is the householder's stage, in which one marries and satisfies k?ma and artha in one's married and professional life respectively (see the goals of life ). The moral obligations of a Hindu householder include supporting one's parents, children, guests and holy figures. V?naprastha , the retirement stage, is gradual detachment from the material world. This may involve giving over duties to one's children, spending more time in religious practices and embarking on holy pilgrimages. Finally, in Sanny?sa , the stage of asceticism , one renounces all worldly attachments to secludedly find the Divine through detachment from worldly life and peacefully shed the body for Moksha . [ 155 ]

Monasticism

A sadhu in Madurai , India.

Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sanny?sa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy , detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God. [ 156 ] A Hindu monk is called a sany?s?, s?dhu , or sw?mi . A female renunciate is called a sany?sini . Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their needs. [ 157 ] It is considered a highly meritorious act for a householder to provide s?dhus with food or other necessaries. S?dhus strive to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked, and to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain. [ 156 ]

Varnas

Hindu society has traditionally been categorized into four classes, called Varnas ( Sanskrit : "colour, form, appearance"): [ 81 ]

Hindus and scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is an integral part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or an outdated social custom. [ 158 ] Among the scriptures, the Varna system is mentioned sparingly and descriptively (ie, not prescriptive ); apart from a single mention in the late Rigvedic Purusha sukta , the rigid division into varnas appears to be post-Vedic, appearing in classical texts from the Maurya period . The Bhagavad G?t? ( 4.13 ) states that the four var?a divisions are created by God, and the Manusm?iti categorizes the different castes. [ 159 ] However, at the same time, the G?t? says that one's var?a is to be understood from one's personal qualities and one's work, not one's birth. [ 160 ] Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists. [ 161 ] [ 162 ]

Many social reformers, including Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar , criticized caste discrimination. [ 163 ] The religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna (1836–1886) taught that

" "Lovers of God do not belong to any caste . . . . A brahmin without this love is no longer a brahmin. And a pariah with the love of God is no longer a pariah. Through bhakti (devotion to God) an untouchable becomes pure and elevated." [ 164 ] "

Ahimsa, vegetarianism and other food customs

Rajasthani thali.

Hindus advocate the practice of ahi?s? (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. [ 165 ] The term ahi?s? appears in the Upanishads , [ 166 ] the epic Mahabharata [ 167 ] and Ahi?s? is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras . [ 168 ]

In accordance with ahi?s? , many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%. [ 169 ] The food habits vary with the community and region, for example some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days. Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef . The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure, [ 172 ] and Hindu society honours the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving. [ 173 ] Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India. [ 174 ]

There are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict vegetarian diet in modern times. One example is the movement known as ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness), whose followers “not only abstain from meat, fish, and fowl, but also avoid certain vegetables that are thought to have negative properties, such as onion and garlic.” [ 175 ] A second example is the Swaminarayan Movement. The followers of this Hindu group also staunchly adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, and seafood. [ 176 ]

Vegetarianism is propagated by the Yajur Veda and it is recommended for a satvic (purifying) lifestyle. [ 177 ] Thus, another reason that dietary purity is so eminent within Hinduism is because “the idea that food reflects the general qualities of nature: purity, energy, inertia” It follows, then, that a healthy diet should be one that promotes purity within an individual. [ 175 ]

Based on this reasoning, Hindus should avoid or minimize the intake of foods that do not promote purity. These foods include onion and garlic, which are regarded as rajasic (a state which is characterized by “tension and overbearing demeanor”) foods, and meat, which is regarded as tamasic (a state which is characterized by “anger, greed, and jealousy”). [ 178 ]

Some Hindus from certain sects - generally Shakta, [ 179 ] certain Shudra and Kshatriya castes [ 180 ] [ 181 ] and certain Eastern Indian [ 182 ] and East Asian regions; [ 183 ] practise animal sacrifice ( bali ). [ 184 ] Although most Hindus, including the majority of Vaishnava and Shaivite Hindus abhor it. [ 185 ]

Conversion

Concepts of conversion , evangelization , and proselytization are absent from Hindu texts and have never played a significant role in practice. Early in its history, in the absence of other competing religions, Hindus considered everyone they came across as Hindus and expected everyone they met to be Hindus. [ 186 ] [ 187 ]

Hindus today continue to be influenced by historical ideas of acceptability of conversion. Hence, many Hindus continue to believe that Hinduism is an identity that can only be had from birth, while many others continue to believe that anyone who follows Hindu beliefs and practices is a Hindu, and many believe in some form of both theories. However, as a reaction to perceived and actual threat of evangelization, prozelyzation, and conversion activities of other major religions most modern Hindus are opposed to the idea of conversion from (any) one religion to (any) other per se. [ 188 ]

Hindus in Western countries generally accept and welcome willing converts, whereas in India acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common. With the rise of Hindu revivalist movements, reconversions to Hinduism have also risen. [ 189 ] Reconversions are well accepted since conversion out of Hinduism is not recognized. [ 190 ] Conversion into Hinduism through marriage is well accepted and often expected to enable the non-Hindu partner to fully participate in their spiritual, religious, and cultural roles within the larger Hindu family and society. [ citation needed ]

There is no formal process for converting to Hinduism, although in many traditions a ritual called d?ksh? ("initiation") marks the beginning of spiritual life. A ritual called shuddhi ("purification") sometimes marks the return to spiritual life after reconversion. Most Hindu sects do not seek converts, [ 191 ] [ 192 ] [ 193 ] [ 194 ] as they believe that the goals of spiritual life can be attained through any religion, as long as it is practiced sincerely. [ 191 ] [ 195 ] However, some Hindu sects and affiliates such as Arya Samaj , Saiva Siddhanta Church , BAPS , and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness accept those who have a desire to follow Hinduism.

In general, Hindu view of religious freedom is not based on the freedom to proselytize, but the right to retain one's religion and not be subject to proselytization. Hindu leaders are advocating for changing the existing formulation of the freedom of religion clause in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since it favours religions which proselytize. [ 196 ]

Véase también

Hinduismo
Related systems and religions
Hinduism in popular culture
Otro

Notas

  1. ^ This work and its description are shown in Pal, p. 125.
  2. ^ For a representation of this form identified as Maharakta, see Pal, p. 130.
  3. ^ a b Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood (2003), pp. 1-17. René Guénon in his Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (1921 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-74-8 , proposes a definition of the term "religion" and a discussion of its relevance (or lack of) to Hindu doctrines (part II, chapter 4, p. 58).
  4. ^ A Historical-developmental study of classical Indian philosophy of morals , Rajendra Prasad, Centre for Studies in Civilizations (Delhi, India), Concept Publishing Company, 2009, ISBN 8180695956 , ISBN 9788180695957
  5. ^ Hinduism that is Sanatana Dharma , RS Nathan, Chinmaya Mission, 1989, ISBN 8175970650 , ISBN 9788175970656
  6. ^ A conceptual-analytic study of classical Indian philosophy of morals , Rajendra Prasad, from preface of the book , Centre for Studies in Civilizations (Delhi, India), Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture. Sub Project: Consciousness, Science, Society, Value, and Yoga, Concept Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 8180695441 , ISBN 9788180695445
  7. ^ a b The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Ed. John Bowker. Oxford University Press, 2000;
  8. ^ The term "Dharma" connotes much more than simply "law". It is not only the doctrine of religious and moral rights, but also the set of religious duties, social order, right conduct and virtuous things and deeds. As such Dharma is the Code of Ethics. [1] The modern use of the term can be traced to late 19th century Hindu reform movements (J. Zavos, Defending Hindu Tradition: Sanatana Dharma as a Symbol of Orthodoxy in Colonial India , Religion (Academic Press), Volume 31, Number 2, April 2001, pp. 109-123; see also RD Baird, " Swami Bhaktivedanta and the Encounter with Religions", Modern Indian Responses to Religious Pluralism , edited by Harold Coward, State University of New York Press, 1987); less literally also rendered "eternal way" (so Harvey, Andrew (2001), Teachings of the Hindu Mystics , Boulder: Shambhala, xiii, ISBN 1-57062-449-6   ). See also René Guénon , Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (1921 ed.), Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-74-8 , part III, chapter 5 "The Law of Manu", p. 146. On the meaning of the word "Dharma", see also René Guénon , Studies in Hinduism , Sophia Perennis, ISBN 0-900588-69-3 , chapter 5, p. 45
  9. ^ Osborne 2005 , p. 9
  10. ^ DS Sarma, Kenneth W. Morgan, The Religion of the Hindus , 1953
  11. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia , Merriam-Webster, 2000, p. 751  
  12. ^ in the world. Laderman, Gary (2003), Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions , Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, pp. 119, ISBN 1-57607-238-X , "world's oldest living civilization and religion"  
  13. ^ Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996), Encyclopedia of relationships across the lifespan , Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, pp. 359, ISBN 0-313-29576-X , "It is also recognized as the oldest major religion in the world"  
  14. ^ a b Klostermaier 1994 , p. 1
  15. ^ The Gita Dhyanam is a traditional short poem sometimes found as a prefatory to editions of the Bhagavad Gita . Verse 4 refers to all the Upanishads as the cows, and the Gita as the milk drawn from them. ( Chidbhavananda 1997 , pp. 67–74)
  16. ^ "India", Oxford English Dictionary , second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv10075.htm
  18. ^ Thapar, R. 1993. Interpreting Early India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 77
  19. ^ Thompson Platts, John, A dictionary of Urdu , classical Hind?, and English , WH Allen & Co., Oxford University 1884  
  20. ^ O'Conell, Joseph T. (1973). "The Word 'Hindu' in Gau??ya Vai??ava Texts". Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3): pp. 340–344.  
  21. ^ http://veda.wikidot.com/sanatana-dharma
  22. ^ http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/sects.htm
  23. ^ "...that many-sided and all-enfolding culture which we in the West have chosen to call Hinduism" Jan Gonda, Visnuism and Sivaism , Munshiram Manoharlal. 1996, ISBN 812150287X p. 1. cited by Welbon, GR ( Journal of the American Academy of Religion , Vol. 43, No. 1, 98+100. March, 1975.), Review: Love of God According to Saiva Siddhanta: A Study in the Mysticism and Theology of Saivism by Mariasusay Dhanamoy .  
  24. ^ Swami Prabhup?d?, AC Bhaktivedanta (1986). Bhagavad-g?t? as it is . The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. pp. 16. ISBN 089213268X,  
  25. ^ a b c Nikhilananda 1990 , pp. 3–8
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  58. ^ Weightman & Klostermaier 1994 , p. 1
  59. ^ Bhagavad Gita , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan : "Hinduism is not just a faith. It is the union of reason and intuition that can not be defined but is only to be experienced."
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  64. ^ Weightman 1998 , pp. 262–264 "It is Hindu self-awareness and self-identity that affirm Hinduism to be one single religious universe, no matter how richly varied its contents, and make it a significant and potent force alongside the other religions of the world."
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  68. ^ "Polytheism" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007 . http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38143/polytheism . Retrieved 2007-07-05 .  
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  70. ^ See Michaels 2004 , p. xiv and Gill, NS "Henotheism" . About, Inc . http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/egyptmyth/g/henotheism.htm . Retrieved 2007-07-05 .  
  71. ^ Kenneth, Kramer (1986). World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions . p. 34. ISBN 9780809127818 . http://books.google.com/books?id=RzUAu-43W5oC&pg=PA34 .  
  72. ^ Subodh Varma (May 6, 2011). speculation "The gods came afterwards" . Times of Retrieved 2011-06-09 .  
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  74. ^ a b c & Bhaskarananda 1994
  75. ^ Vivekananda 1987
  76. ^ Werner 1994 , p. p37
  77. ^ See Theistic Explanations of Karma, pg. 146 of Causation and Divine Intervention by BR Reichenbach, citing Uddyotakara, Nyaayavaarttika, IV, 1, 21, at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/reiche2.htm
  78. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce R. (April 1989). "Karma, causation, and divine intervention" . Philosophy East and West (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press) 39 (2): pp. 135–149. doi : 10.2307/1399374 . http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/reiche2.htm . Retrieved 2009-12-29 .  
  79. ^ Neville, Robert. Religious truth . p. 47 . http://books.google.com/books?id=ThLR13JpCWsC .  
  80. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 7
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  87. ^ Coward, Harold. The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought . p. 114 . http://books.google.com/books?id=LkE_8uch5P0C .  
  88. ^ For translation of deva in singular noun form as "a deity, god", and in plural form as "the gods" or "the heavenly or shining ones", see: Monier-Williams 2001 , p. 492. In fact, there are different ranks among the devas. The highest are the immortal Mahadevas , such as Shiva, Vishnu, etc. The second-rank devas, such as Ganesha, are described as their offspring: they are "born", and their "lifespan" is quite limited. In ISKCON the word is translated as "demigods", although it can also denote such heavenly denizens as gandharvas . See: "Vedic cosmology" . Vedic Knowledge Online . VEDA - Bhaktivedanta Book Trust . http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/planetarium/index.htm . Retrieved 2007-06-25 .   . For translation of devat? as "godhead, divinity", see: Monier-Williams 2001 , p. 495.
  89. ^ Werner 1994 , p. 80
  90. ^ Renou 1961 , p. 55
  91. ^ a b Harman 2004 , pp. 104–106
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  93. ^ Smith 1991 , p. 64
  94. ^ Radhakrishnan 1996 , p. 254
  95. ^ Bhagavad Gita 2.22
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  97. ^ See Vivekananda, Swami (2005), Jnana Yoga , Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-425482-88-0   301-02 (8th Printing 1993)
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  103. ^ The Christian concepts of Heaven and Hell do not translate directly into Hinduism. Spiritual realms such as Vaikunta (the abode of Vishnu) or loka are the closest analogues to an eternal Kingdom of God.
  104. ^ Nikhilananda 1992
  105. ^ as discussed in Mah?bh?rata 12.161; Bilimoria et al. (eds.), Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges (2007), p. 103; see also Werner 1994 , Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 7
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  108. ^ For example, see the following translation of B-Gita 11.54: "My dear Arjuna, only by undivided devotional service can I be understood as I am, standing before you, and can thus be seen directly. Only in this way can you enter into the mysteries of My understanding." ( Bhaktivedanta 1997 , ch. 11.54 )
  109. ^ "One who knows that the position reached by means of analytical study can also be attained by devotional service, and who therefore sees analytical study and devotional service to be on the same level, sees things as they are." ( Bhaktivedanta 1997 , ch. 5.5 )
  110. ^ Monier-Williams 1974 , p. 116
  111. ^ Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 157
  112. ^ Bhaskarananda 1994 , p. 137
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  125. ^ a b Vivekananda 1987 , pp. 118–120 Vol III
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  131. ^ Rigveda is not only the oldest among the vedas, but is one of the earliest Indo-European texts.
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  159. ^ Manu Smriti Laws of Manu 1.87-1.91
  160. ^ This view is supported by records of sages who became Brahmins. For example, the sage Vishv?mitra was a king of the K?hatriya caste, and only later became recognized as a great Brahmin sage, indicating that his caste was not determined by birth. Similarly, V?lmiki , once a low-caste robber, became a sage.
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  167. ^ For ahi?s? as one of the "emerging ethical and religious issues" in the Mah?bh?rata see: Brockington, John, "The Sanskrit Epics", in Flood (2003), p. 125.
  168. ^ For text of YS 2.29 and translation of yama as "vow of self-restraint", see: Taimni , IK (1961), The Science of Yoga , Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, ISBN 81-7059-212-7   , p. 206.
  169. ^ Surveys studying food habits of Indians include: "Diary and poultry sector growth in India" , "Indian consumer patterns" and "Agri reform in India" . Results indicate that Indians who eat meat do so infrequently with less than 30% consuming non-vegetarian foods regularly, although the reasons may be economical.
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  195. ^ See Swami Bhaskarananda, Essentials of Hinduism pp. 189-92 (Viveka Press 1994) ISBN 1-884852-02-5
  196. ^ Omar, Rashid (August 2006) (PDF), The Right to Religious Conversion: Between Apostasy and Proselytization , Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame, pp. 4 , http://kroc.nd.edu/ocpapers/op_27_1.pdf  

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