Antisemitismo

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Antisemitismo (también deletreado anti-semitismo o antisemitismo) es el prejuicio o el odio, o la discriminación en contra de Judios por razones vinculadas a su judío patrimonio. Las personas titulares de estos puntos de vista se conoce como "antisemita".

Mientras que el término de etimología podría sugerir que el antisemitismo se dirige contra todos los pueblos semíticos , el término fue acuñado en el siglo 19 en Alemania como más científica que suena plazo para judenhass ("Judio-odio"), [1] y que ha sido su uso normal desde entonces. [2] A los efectos de un informe de 2005 EE.UU. gubernamental, el antisemitismo era considerado "el odio hacia los Judios, individualmente y como grupo-que se puede atribuir a la religión judía y / o el origen étnico". [3]

El antisemitismo puede manifestarse de muchas maneras, que van desde las expresiones de odio o discriminación contra los Judios individuales organizados violentos ataques por parte de turbas, la policía estatal, o incluso ataques militares contra comunidades judías enteras. Ejemplos notables de persecución incluyen los pogromos que precedieron a la Primera Cruzada en 1096, la expulsión de Inglaterra en 1290, las masacres de los Judios españoles en 1391, las persecuciones de la Inquisición española , la expulsión de España en 1492, masacres cosacos en Ucrania , varios pogroms en Rusia, el caso Dreyfus , el Holocausto , oficiales de las políticas soviéticas contra los judíos y el éxodo judío de países árabes y musulmanes .

Contenido

[ editar ] Etimología y uso

[ editar ] Uso

A pesar del uso del prefijo anti-antisemitismo, los términos semitas y anti-semitas no son directamente opuestos entre sí. Refiere específicamente al prejuicio contra Judios solo y en general, [2] [4] a pesar de que hay otros oradores de lenguas semíticas (por ejemplo, los árabes , etíopes , o asirios ) y que no todos los Judios hablan una lengua semítica.

El término anti-semita se ha utilizado en ocasiones para incluir intolerancia contra otros pueblos semitas de lengua, como los árabes, pero este uso no es aceptado ampliamente. [5] [6]

Ambos términos antisemitismo y el antisemitismo son de uso común. Algunos estudiosos favorecen el antisemitismo forma unhyphenated para evitar la posible confusión que implica si el término se refiere específicamente a los Judios, o semítico hablantes de lengua en su conjunto. [7] [8] [9] [10] Por ejemplo, Emil Fackenheim apoyó la unhyphenated ortografía, con el fin de "[disipar] la idea de que hay" antisemitismo "una entidad que" antisemitismo "se opone". [11]

[ editar ] Etimología

Portada de Marr El Camino a la Victoria de Germanicism sobre el Judaísmo, 1880 Edición

Aunque Wilhelm Marr se le atribuye haber acuñado la palabra antisemitismo (véase más adelante), Alex Bein escribe que la palabra fue utilizada por primera vez en 1860 por el erudito judío austriaco Moritz Steinschneider en la frase "los prejuicios antisemitas". [12] Steinschneider utiliza esta frase para caracterizar Ernest Renan ideas 's acerca de cómo " semitas razas "eran inferiores a los" arios carreras ". Estos pseudo-científicas teorías sobre la raza, la civilización y el "progreso" se había vuelto muy extendido en Europa en la segunda mitad del siglo 19, especialmente en Prusia nacionalista historiador Heinrich von Treitschke hizo mucho para promover esta forma de racismo. Él acuñó la frase "los Judios son nuestra desgracia", que más tarde sería ampliamente utilizada por los nazis . [13] En los escritos de Treitschke semítico era sinónimo de judío, en contraste con su uso por Renan y otros.

En 1873, el periodista alemán Wilhelm Marr publicó un folleto "La victoria del espíritu judío sobre el Espíritu germánico. Visto desde una perspectiva no religiosa." ("Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom nicht aus confessionellen Standpunkt betrachtet.") [ 14] en el que utilizó la palabra "Semitismus" de manera intercambiable con la palabra "Judentum" para denotar tanto "los judíos" (los Judios como colectivo) y "judío" (la cualidad de ser judío, o el espíritu judío). A pesar de que no hizo uso de la palabra "Antisemitismus" en el folleto, la acuñación de esta última palabra seguida naturalmente de la palabra "Semitismus" e indicó ya sea oposición a los Judios, como pueblo, o la oposición a otro judío o el espíritu judío, que vio como la infiltración cultura alemana. En su folleto que viene "El camino a la victoria del espíritu germánico sobre el espíritu judío", publicado en 1880, Marr desarrolló sus ideas más allá y acuñó la palabra alemana relacionada Antisemitismus - antisemitismo, derivado de la palabra "Semitismus" que tenía antes utilizado.

El folleto se hizo muy popular, y en el mismo año se fundó la "Liga de los antisemitas" ("Antisemiten-Liga"), la organización alemana de primera comprometido específicamente a la lucha contra la supuesta amenaza a Alemania y la cultura alemana planteada por los Judios y su influencia y abogando por su expulsión del país.

Por lo que puede determinarse, la primera palabra fue ampliamente impreso en 1881, cuando Marr publicó "Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte", y Wilhelm Scherer empleó el término "Antisemiten" en la edición de enero de la "Neue Freie Presse". La palabra relacionada antisemitismo fue acuñado alrededor de 1885.

[ editar ] Definición

Aunque la definición general del antisemitismo es la hostilidad o prejuicio contra los Judios, y, según Olaf Blaschke, se convierten en un "término genérico que incluye estereotipos negativos sobre los Judios", [15] una serie de autoridades han desarrollado definiciones más formales.

Estudioso del Holocausto y la City University of New York profesora Helen Fein lo define como "una estructura latente persistencia de creencias hostiles hacia Judios como un colectivo se manifiesta en los individuos como las actitudes y en la cultura como mito, la ideología, el folclore y las imágenes, y en acciones - social o la discriminación legal, la movilización política en contra de los Judios, y la violencia colectiva o estatal - que se traduce en y / o ha sido diseñado para la distancia, desplazar o destruir como Judios Judios ".

Abundando en definición Fein, Dietz Bering de la Universidad de Colonia, escribe que, a los antisemitas, "Judios no son sólo parcialmente, pero malo en su totalidad por la naturaleza, es decir, sus rasgos negativos son incorregibles Debido a esta naturaleza mala: (1). Judios tienen a verse no como individuos sino como colectivo. (2) Judios siguen siendo esencialmente extranjero en las sociedades circundantes. (3) Judios traer el desastre sobre sus "sociedades de acogida o en el mundo entero, lo están haciendo en secreto, por lo tanto los antisemitas sienten obligados a desenmascarar el carácter conspirativo, judíos malos ". [16]

Para Sonja Weinberg, a diferencia de los económicos y religiosos anti-judaísmo , el antisemitismo en su forma moderna demuestra la innovación conceptual, el recurso a la "ciencia" para defenderse, nuevas formas funcionales y las diferencias organizativas. Era anti-liberal, racista y nacionalista. Se promovió el mito de que los Judios conspiraron para "judaizar" el mundo , sino que sirvió para consolidar la identidad social, sino que canaliza insatisfacciones entre las víctimas del sistema capitalista. y fue utilizado como un código cultural conservador para luchar contra la emancipación y el liberalismo [17]

Caricatura antisemita por C.Léandre (Francia, 1898) que muestra Rothschild con el mundo en sus manos

Bernard Lewis define el antisemitismo como un caso especial de los prejuicios, el odio o persecución dirigidos contra las personas que son de alguna manera diferente del resto. Según Lewis, el antisemitismo está marcada por dos características distintas: ". Mal cósmico" Judios son juzgados de acuerdo con un estándar diferente del que se aplica a los demás, y se les acusa de Por lo tanto, "es perfectamente posible e incluso a odiar Judios perseguir sin ser necesariamente anti-semita" a menos que este odio o persecución muestra una de las dos características específicas para el antisemitismo. [18]

Ha habido una serie de esfuerzos por parte de organismos internacionales y gubernamentales para definir formalmente el antisemitismo. El Departamento de Estado de EE.UU. define el antisemitismo en su informe de 2005 sobre Antisemitismo Mundial como "el odio hacia los Judios, individualmente y como grupo-que se puede atribuir a la religión judía y / o el origen étnico". [3]

En 2005, el Observatorio Europeo del Racismo y la Xenofobia (ahora Agencia de los Derechos Fundamentales ), a continuación, una agencia de la Unión Europea , ha desarrollado una detallada definición de trabajo , que establece: "El antisemitismo es una determinada percepción de los Judios, que se puede expresar como manifestaciones odio hacia los Judios. verbales y físicas de antisemitismo se dirigen a individuos judíos o no judíos y / o sus bienes, hacia las instituciones de la comunidad judía e instalaciones religiosas ". Agrega que "estas manifestaciones también podría apuntar al estado de Israel, concebido como una colectividad judía". Proporciona ejemplos contemporáneos de antisemitismo, que incluyen: promover el daño a Judios en nombre de una ideología o religión, la promoción de estereotipos negativos de los Judios, Judios celebración colectivamente responsables por las acciones de un individuo o un grupo judío, negando el Holocausto o acusar Judios Israel o de exagerar ella, y acusando a Judios de lealtad dual o una lealtad mayor a Israel de su propio país. También enumera las formas en que atacar a Israel podrían ser antisemita, y afirma que negar al pueblo judío su derecho a la libre determinación, por ejemplo, al afirmar que la existencia de un estado de Israel es un esfuerzo racista, pueden ser una manifestación de antisemitismo - como Puede aplicar un doble rasero al exigir a Israel un comportamiento no esperar o exigir de cualquier otra nación democrática, o Judios que sostienen colectivamente responsables de las acciones del Estado de Israel. [19]

1889 París, Francia cartel electoral para la auto-descrita "candidat antisemita" Adolphe Willette : "Los Judios son una raza diferente, hostil a la nuestra ... El judaísmo, está el enemigo!" (Véase el archivo de la traducción completa)

[ editar ] Evolución del uso de

En 1879, Wilhelm Marr fundó la Antisemiten-Liga (Liga antisemita). La identificación con el antisemitismo y como un antisemita era políticamente ventajoso en Europa en el siglo 19 esta última. Por ejemplo, Karl Lueger , el alcalde popular de fin de siglo en Viena , hábilmente explotado antisemitismo como una forma de canalizar el descontento público para su beneficio político. [20] En su obituario de 1910 Lueger, The New York Times señala que Lueger era "Presidente de la Unión Social Cristiana del Parlamento y de la Unión antisemita de la Dieta de la Baja Austria. [21] En 1895 AC Cuza organizó la Alianza de Lucha contra el semitique Universelle en Bucarest. En el período anterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial , cuando la animosidad hacia Judios era mucho más común, no era raro que una persona, organización o partido político que identifican a sí mismos como un antisemita o antisemita.

En 1882, los primeros sionista pionero Judá Leib Pinsker escribió que el antisemitismo era una predisposición hereditaria:

Judeofobia es una aberración psíquica. Como una aberración psíquica es hereditaria, y como una enfermedad transmitida durante dos mil años, es incurable. ... "De esta manera se han judaísmo y el antisemitismo durante siglos pasó a la historia como compañeros inseparables. '... ... 'Una vez analizada la judeofobia como una forma hereditaria de demonopathy, peculiar de la raza humana, y de haber representado el antisemitismo como procedente de una aberración hereditaria de la mente humana, debemos llegar a la conclusión importante que debemos dar "hasta contendiendo contra estos impulsos hostiles como debemos hacerlo contra toda otra predisposición heredada. [22]

A raíz de la Kristallnacht pogrom en 1938, el ministro de propaganda alemán Goebbels anunció: "El pueblo alemán es antisemita No tiene ningún deseo de tener sus derechos restringidos o dejarse provocar en el futuro por los parásitos de la raza judía.". [ 23]

Después del 1945 la victoria de los aliados sobre la Alemania nazi , y sobre todo después de la extensión del genocidio nazi de Judios llegó a ser conocido, el término "antisemitismo" adquirido peyorativas connotaciones. Esto marcó un cambio de punto de partida en el uso, de una época en sólo unas décadas antes, cuando "Judio" fue utilizado como un término peyorativo. [24] [25] Yehuda Bauer escribió en 1984: "No hay antisemitas en el mundo ... Nadie dice: "Yo soy antisemita." "No se puede, después de Hitler. La palabra ha pasado de moda ". [26]

[ editar ] Formas

Judios (identificado por el obligatorio distintivo judío y sombrero judío ) que se quemó durante la Muerte Negro en 1348.

A menudo se hizo hincapié en que existen diferentes formas de antisemitismo. René König menciona antisemitismo social, económico antisemitismo, el antisemitismo religioso, y el antisemitismo político como ejemplos. König señala que estas diferentes formas demostrar que los "orígenes de prejuicios antisemitas tienen su origen en diferentes períodos históricos." König afirma que las diferencias en la cronología de los diferentes prejuicios antisemitas y la distribución irregular de tales prejuicios sobre diferentes segmentos de la población crean "serias dificultades en la definición de los diferentes tipos de antisemitismo". [27] Estas dificultades pueden contribuir a la existencia de taxonomías diferentes que han sido desarrollados para clasificar las formas de antisemitismo. Las formas identificadas son sustancialmente las mismas, sino que es principalmente el número de formas y sus definiciones que difieren. Bernard Lazare identifica tres formas de antisemitismo: el antisemitismo cristiano ., el antisemitismo económico, y el antisemitismo etnológico [28] William Brustein nombres de cuatro categorías:. religioso, racial, económica y política [29] La Católica historiador Edward Flannery distinguir cuatro variedades de antisemitismo: [30] [ página es necesario ]

Louis Harap separa "antisemitismo económico" y fusiona "política" y "nacionalista" antisemitismo en "antisemitismo ideológico". Harap también añade una categoría de "antisemitismo social". [31]

  • religiosa (Judio como asesino de Cristo),
  • económica (Judio como banquero, usurero, el dinero obsesionado),
  • social (como Judio social inferior, "agresivo", vulgar, por lo tanto, excluidos del contacto personal),
  • racista (Judios como un ser inferior "raza"),
  • ideológico (Judios considerado como subversivo o revolucionario),
  • cultural (Judios considerado como un debilitamiento de la fibra moral y estructural de la civilización).

[ edit ] antisemitismo Cultural

Louis Harap define antisemitismo cultural como "esa especie de anti-semitismo que cobra los Judios de corromper a una cultura determinada y tratar de suplantar o tener éxito en el reemplazo de la cultura preferida con un uniforme, crudo," cultura judía ". [32] Del mismo modo, Eric Kandel caracteriza antisemitismo cultural que se basa en la idea de "judío" como una "tradición religiosa o cultural que se adquiere a través del aprendizaje, a través de distintas tradiciones y la educación." Según Kandel, esta forma de antisemitismo vistas Judios como poseedor de "poco atractivo psicológico y características sociales que se adquieren a través de aculturación ". [33] Niewyk y Nicosia caracterizar antisemitismo cultural, enfocando y condena "los Judios" indiferencia de las sociedades en las que viven ". [34] Una característica importante del antisemitismo cultural es que considera los atributos negativos del judaísmo para ser redimibles por la educación o la conversión religiosa. [35]

[ edit ] antisemitismo religioso

Antisemitismo religioso es también conocido como anti-judaísmo. En esta versión del antisemitismo, los ataques a menudo se detendría si Judios dejado de practicar o cambiar su fe pública, especialmente por la conversión a la religión oficial o la derecha, y, a veces, la exclusión de los judíos conversos litúrgico (el caso de cristianizados marranos o judíos Ibérica a finales de los siglo 15 y siglo 16 condenados por practicar secretamente el judaísmo o las costumbres judías). [36]

Aunque los orígenes del antisemitismo tienen sus raíces en el conflicto judeo-cristiana, el antisemitismo religioso, otras formas de antisemitismo se han desarrollado en los tiempos modernos. Frederick Schweitzer afirma que, "la mayoría de los estudiosos ignoran el fundamento cristiano en el que se apoya el edificio y antisemitas modernos invocar antisemitismo político, el antisemitismo cultural, el racismo o el antisemitismo racial, el antisemitismo económico y similares". [37] William Nichols establece una distinción entre el antisemitismo religioso y el antisemitismo moderno basado en motivos raciales o étnicos: "La línea divisoria era la posibilidad de conversión eficaz ... un Judio dejado de ser un Judio en el bautismo". Desde la perspectiva del antisemitismo racial, sin embargo, "... el Judio asimilado todavía era un Judio, incluso después del bautismo .... A partir de la Ilustración, que ya no es posible establecer claras líneas de distinción entre las formas religiosas y raciales de hostilidad hacia los Judios Judios ... Una vez que se han emancipado y el pensamiento secular hace su aparición, sin dejar atrás la vieja hostilidad cristiana hacia Judios, el antisemitismo nuevo término se vuelve casi inevitable, incluso antes de doctrinas explícitamente racistas aparecer ".

[ edit ] antisemitismo Económico

La premisa subyacente de antisemitismo económico es que Judios realizar actividades económicas o dañinos que las actividades económicas se vuelven perjudiciales cuando son realizadas por Judios. [38]

Vinculación de Judios y el dinero inspira las más dañinas y duraderas canards antisemitas . [39] afirman que Judios antisemitas controlar las finanzas mundiales, una teoría promovida en las fraudulentas Protocolos de los Sabios de Sión , y más tarde repetida por Henry Ford y su Dearborn Independent . En la era moderna, esos mitos siguen siendo difundida en libros tales como la relación secreta entre negros y judíos publicadas por la Nación del Islam , y en el Internet.

Una caricatura del alemán antisemita Der Stürmer , en torno a la Navidad 1929. Instó a los alemanes a evitar la compra de las tiendas judías.

Derek Penslar escribe que hay dos componentes a los financieros canards : [40]

una Judios) son unos salvajes que "son temperamentalmente incapaz de llevar a cabo el trabajo honesto"
b) Judios son "líderes de una camarilla financiera busca dominar el mundo"

Abraham Foxman describe seis facetas de los canards financieros:

  1. Todos los Judios son ricos [41]
  2. Judios son mezquinos y codiciosos [42]
  3. Judios poderosos controlan el mundo de los negocios [43]
  4. Religión judía enfatiza los beneficios y el materialismo [44]
  5. Está bien que los Judios hacer trampa no-Judios [45]
  6. Judios utilizan su poder para beneficiar a "los suyos" [46]

Gerald Krefetz resume el mito como "[Judios] controlan los bancos, la oferta monetaria, la economía y los negocios - de la comunidad, del país y del mundo". [47] Krefetz da, como ilustraciones, calumnias muchos y proverbios (en varios idiomas), que sugieren que Judios son tacaños, o avaro, o avaro, o negociadores agresivos. [48] Durante el siglo XIX, los Judios fueron descritos como "estúpido grosero, y apretado puño-", pero después de la judía Emancipación y el aumento de los Judios a la media o de la clase alta en Europa fueron retratados como "financistas astutos, artero y manipulador a dominar las finanzas mundiales []". [49]

León Poliakov afirma que el antisemitismo económico no es una forma distinta de antisemitismo, sino simplemente una manifestación de antisemitismo teológico (porque, sin las causas teológicas del antisemitismo económico, no habría antisemitismo económico). En oposición a este punto de vista, Derek Penslar sostiene que en la era moderna, el antisemitismo económica es "distinta y casi constante", pero el antisemitismo teológico "está sometido a menudo". [50]

[ editar ] antisemitismo racial

Prisionero de guerra soviético de agosto de 1941. Al menos 50.000 soldados judíos fueron fusilados después de la selección.

Antisemitismo racial es el prejuicio contra Judios como un grupo racial / étnico, lugar de judaísmo como una religión. [51]

Antisemitismo racial es la idea de que los Judios son una raza distinta e inferior en comparación con los países de acogida. A finales del siglo 19 y principios del siglo 20, ganó la aceptación general como parte de la eugenesia movimiento, que no categorizados "europeos" como inferiores. Es más específicamente afirmó que los "nórdicos" europeos eran superiores. Raciales antisemitas vio los Judios como parte de una raza semita y destacó sus "extrañas" extra-europeos orígenes y la cultura. Vieron Judios como más allá de la redención, incluso si se convertían a la religión mayoritaria. Los antropólogos discuten si los Judios poseía ningún árabe Armenoide , afro- nubios y asiáticos- Turkic ascendencias.

Antisemitismo racial reemplazó el odio del judaísmo con el odio de los Judios como un grupo. En el contexto de la Revolución Industrial , después de la emancipación de los Judios , Judios rápidamente urbanizado y experimentó un período de mayor movilidad social. Con la disminución de la función de la religión en público antisemitismo temple vida religiosa, una combinación de creciente nacionalismo , el aumento de la eugenesia y el resentimiento por el éxito socio-económico de los Judios llevó a la más reciente, y más virulentas, el antisemitismo racista.

Según William Nichols, el antisemitismo religioso se distingue del antisemitismo moderno basado en la raza o etnia motivos. "La línea divisoria era la posibilidad de conversión de efectivo ... un Judio dejado de ser un Judio en el bautismo". Sin embargo, con el antisemitismo racial: "Ahora el Judio asimilado todavía era un Judio, incluso después del bautismo .... Desde el Iluminismo en adelante, ya no es posible establecer claras líneas de distinción entre las formas religiosas y raciales de hostilidad hacia los Judios .. . Una vez que Judios han sido emancipado y el pensamiento secular hace su aparición, sin dejar atrás la vieja hostilidad cristiana hacia Judios, el antisemitismo nuevo término se vuelve casi inevitable, incluso antes de doctrinas explícitamente racistas aparecer ". [52]

En el siglo 19, una serie de leyes que permiten la emancipación de los Judios fueron promulgadas en países de Europa Occidental. [53] [54] Las viejas leyes que restringen a los guetos , así como las muchas leyes que limitaban sus derechos de propiedad, derechos de el culto y la ocupación, fueron rescindidas. A pesar de esto, la discriminación y la hostilidad tradicional a Judios por motivos religiosos persistió y se complementó con el antisemitismo racial , alentado por el trabajo de los teóricos raciales como Joseph Arthur de Gobineau y particularmente su Ensayo sobre la desigualdad de la Raza Humana de 1853-5. nacionalista programas basados ​​en la etnicidad , conocido como etnonacionalismo , por lo general excluidos los Judios de la comunidad nacional como una raza alienígena. [55] Junto a esto son teorías de darwinismo social , que destacó un conflicto putativo entre razas superiores e inferiores de los seres humanos. Tales teorías, por lo general planteadas por los europeos del norte, defendió la superioridad de los blancos arios para semíticas Judios. [56]

[ editar ] Política antisemitismo

William Brustein define antisemitismo político como hostilidad hacia Judios basado en la creencia de que Judios buscar nacional y / o potencia mundial. "Yisrael Gutman caracteriza antisemitismo político que tiende a" echar la responsabilidad sobre los Judios de derrotas políticas y las crisis económicas ", mientras buscan" explotar oposición y resistencia a la influencia judía como elementos de plataformas de los partidos políticos ". [57]

Según Viktor Karády, el antisemitismo político se generalizó después de la legal emancipación de los Judios y trató de revertir algunas de las consecuencias de esa emancipación. [58]

[ edit ] antisemitismo Apocalyptic

Adolf Hitler 's milenario y la visión mesiánica que culminó en el Holocausto se refiere a veces como un "antisemitismo apocalíptico". [59] [60]

[ editar ] Teorías de la conspiración

La negación del Holocausto y la conspiración judía teorías también se considera una forma de antisemitismo. [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [65] [66] [67] Las teorías conspirativas zoológicos se han propagado por la medios de comunicación árabes y árabe sitios web de idiomas, alegando un "complot sionista" detrás de la utilización de animales para atacar a civiles o para realizar espionaje.

[ editar ] Nueva antisemitismo

A partir de la década de 1990, algunos eruditos han desarrollado el concepto de nuevo antisemitismo , que viene de forma simultánea desde la izquierda , la derecha , y el Islam radical , que tiende a centrarse en la oposición a la creación de una patria judía en el Estado de Israel , [68] y argumentan que el lenguaje del anti-sionismo y la crítica a Israel se usan para atacar a los Judios en general. En esta vista, los defensores de la nueva concepción creen que las críticas a Israel y el sionismo son a menudo desproporcionado en grado y único en su género, y lo atribuyen al antisemitismo. [69] Se afirma que el nuevo antisemitismo despliega motivos tradicionales antisemitas, incluyendo mayores motivos como el libelo de sangre . [68]

Los críticos del concepto lo ven como banalizar el significado del antisemitismo, y como explotar el antisemitismo con el fin de silenciar el debate y desviar la atención de legítima crítica al Estado de Israel y, al asociar el antisionismo con el antisemitismo, mal olor a nadie se opuso a acciones y políticas israelíes. [70]

[ editar ] Historia

Muchos autores ver las raíces del antisemitismo económico tanto en la antigüedad pagana y el cristianismo primitivo. Jerome Chanes identifica seis etapas en el desarrollo histórico del antisemitismo:

  1. Pre-antijudaísmo cristiano en la antigua Grecia y Roma, que fue principalmente de carácter étnico
  2. Antisemitismo cristiano en la Antigüedad y la Edad Media, que era de carácter religioso y se ha extendido a los tiempos modernos
  3. Antisemitismo tradicional musulmana que era - al menos en su forma clásica - matizada en que Judios son una clase protegida
  4. Antisemitismo político, social y económico de la Ilustración y post-ilustrado Europa, que sentó las bases para el antisemitismo racial
  5. Antisemitismo racial que surgió en el siglo 19 y que culminó en el nazismo
  6. Antisemitismo contemporáneo que se ha denominado por algunos como el nuevo antisemitismo

Chanes sugiere que estas seis etapas podrían fusionarse en tres categorías: "antisemitismo antiguo, que fue principalmente de carácter étnico, el antisemitismo cristiano , que era religioso, y el antisemitismo racial de los siglos XIX y XX ". [71]

[ edit ] mundo antiguo

Los primeros ejemplos claros de sentimiento anti-judío se remonta a Alejandría en el 3er siglo AEC. [36] Alejandría fue el hogar de la mayor comunidad de la diáspora judía en el mundo y la Septuaginta , la traducción griega de la Biblia hebrea , se produjo allí. Manetón , un sacerdote egipcio e historiador de la época, escribió mordazmente de los Judios y sus temas se repiten en las obras de Chaeremon , Lisímaco , Posidonio , Apolonio Molón , y en Apion y Tácito . [36] Agatharchides de Cnido ridiculizó la prácticas de los Judios y el "absurdo de su ley ", haciendo una referencia burlona a cómo Lagus Ptolomeo fue capaz de invadir Jerusalén en el año 320 antes de Cristo, porque sus habitantes estaban observando el Shabat . [36] Uno de los primeros anti-judías edictos , promulgada por Antíoco IV Epífanes en alrededor de 170-167 aC, provocó una revuelta de los Macabeos en Judea .

En vista de anti-judíos de Manetón escritos, el antisemitismo puede tener su origen en Egipto y se extendió por "el griego recuento de Antiguo Egipto prejuicios ". [72] El filósofo judío antiguo Filón de Alejandría describe un ataque contra Judios en Alejandría en el 38 CE en which thousands of Jews died. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes . [ 75 ] Tcherikover argues that the reason for hatred of Jews in the Hellenistic period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the poleis . [ 76 ] Bohak has argued, however, that early animosity against the Jews cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic unless it arose from attitudes that were held against the Jews alone, and that many Greeks showed animosity toward any group they regarded as barbarians. [ 77 ] Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers. [ 78 ] Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews' refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses "in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life." Manetho , an Egyptian historian, wrote that the Jews were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught by Moses "not to adore the gods." Edward Flannery describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially "cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in political settings." [ 79 ]

There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision , Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may also be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE. Philo of Alexandria described an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.

The Jewish diaspora on the Nile island Elephantine , which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410 BCE. [ 80 ]

Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions . According to Suetonius , the emperor Tiberius expelled from Rome Jews who had gone to live there. The 18th century English historian Edward Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE [ citation needed ] . However, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the state's attitude towards the Jews gradually worsened .

James Carroll asserted: "Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire . By that ratio, if other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million." [ 81 ] [ 82 ]

[ edit ] Persecutions in the Middle Ages

From the 9th century CE, the medieval Islamic world classified Jews (and Christians) as dhimmi , and allowed them to practice their religion more freely than they could do in medieval Christian Europe . Under Islamic rule , there was a Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain that lasted until at least the 11th century, [ 83 ] when several Muslim pogroms against Jews took place on the Iberian Peninsula ; including those that occurred in Córdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066 . [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] Several decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted in Egypt , Syria , Iraq and Yemen from the 11th century. Jews were also forced to convert to Islam or face death in some parts of Yemen , Morocco and Baghdad several times between the 12th and 18th centuries. [ 87 ] The Almohads , who had taken control of the Almoravids ' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147, [ 88 ] were far more fundamentalist in outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Some, such as the family of Maimonides , fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands, [ 89 ] while some others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms. [ 92 ]

During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution against Jews in many places, with blood libels , expulsions, forced conversions and massacres . A main justification of prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious. The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades . In the First Crusade (1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were destroyed . In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were subject to several massacres. The Jews were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds' Crusades of 1251 and 1320. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, the expulsion of 100,000 Jews in France; and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many of the expelled Jews fled to Poland. [ 93 ] In medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe and promoted antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals. [ 94 ]

As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the mid-14th century, annihilating more than half of the population, Jews were used as scapegoats . Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed. Although Pope Clement VI tried to protect them by issuing the 6 July 1348, papal bull and an additional bull in 1348, several months later, 900 Jews were burned alive in Strasbourg , where the plague had not yet affected the city. [ 95 ]

[ editar ] siglo 17

During the mid-to-late 17th century the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish losses were counted in hundreds of thousands. First, the Khmelnytsky Uprising when Bohdan Khmelnytsky 's Cossacks massacred tens of thousands of Jews in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today's Ukraine ). The precise number of dead may never be known, but the decrease of the Jewish population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire , called jasyr . [ 96 ] [ 97 ]

European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant , the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam , implemented plans to prevent Jews from settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until the Revolutionary War that Jews gained legal rights, including the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the restrictions on Jews in the United States were never as stringent as they had been in Europe. [ 98 ]

[ edit ] Iluminación

In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia limited the number of Jews allowed to live in Breslau to only ten so-called "protected" Jewish families and encouraged a similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft : the "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin " (quoting Simon Dubnow ). In the same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa ordered Jews out of Bohemia but soon reversed her position, on the condition that Jews pay for their readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money). In 1752 she introduced the law limiting each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of these persecution practices in his Toleranzpatent , on the condition that Yiddish and Hebrew were eliminated from public records and that judicial autonomy was annulled. Moses Mendelssohn wrote that "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution."

In 1772, the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the Jews of the Pale of Settlement to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland . [ 99 ]

[ edit ] Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century

Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th century traveler: "I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine . To all this the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan." [ 100 ]

[ edit ] Secular or racial antisemitism

In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner published Das Judenthum in der Musik ("Jewishness in Music") under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik . The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner's contemporaries (and rivals) Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer , but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture . Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms' Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm , published from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly characterized by Jews being the villain of a story, such as in "The Good Bargain (Der gute Handel)" and "The Jew Among Thorns (Der Jude im Dorn)."

The Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus , a Jewish artillery captain in the French army, was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island . The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, with the public choosing sides regarding whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not. Émile Zola accused the army of polluting the French justice system. However, general consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period. [ 101 ]

Adolf Stoecker (1835–1909), the Lutheran court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I , founded in 1878 an antisemitic, antiliberal political party called The Christian Social Party (Germany) . However, this party did not attract as many votes as the Nazi party, which flourished in part because of The Great Depression , which hit Germany especially hard during the early 1930s. [ 102 ] [ 103 ]

Some scholars view Karl Marx's essay On The Jewish Question as antisemitic, and he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ] Marx's equation of Judaism with capitalism, together with his pronouncements on Jews, strongly influenced socialist movements and shaped their attitudes and policies toward the Jews. Some further argue Marx's On the Jewish Question influenced National Socialist , as well as Soviet and Arab antisemites. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ] Albert Lindemann and Hyam Maccoby have suggested that Marx was embarrassed by his Jewish background . [ 110 ] [ 111 ] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian Jewish communities' struggles to achieve equal political rights. These scholars argue that "On the Jewish Question" is a critique of Bruno Bauer's arguments that Jews must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critique of liberal rights discourses and capitalism. [ 112 ] [ 113 ] [ 114 ] [ 115 ] David McLellan and Francis Wheen argue that readers should interpret On the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marx's debates with Bruno Bauer , author of The Jewish Question , about Jewish emancipation in Germany. According to McLellan, Marx used the word Judentum colloquially, as meaning commerce , arguing that Germans must be emancipated from the capitalist mode of production not Judaism or Jews in particular. [ 116 ]

[ editar ] siglo 20

The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Yekaterinoslav

Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million Jews migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American Jews had always amounted to less than 1% of America's total population, but by 1930 Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States. [ 117 ] The case was also used to build support for the renewal of the Ku Klux Klan which had been inactive since 1870. [ 118 ]

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used allegations of Jews killing Christians as a justification for the killing of Jews.

Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent (published by Ford from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in the late 1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt 's New Deal and promoted the notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden , Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency , blamed Jews for Roosevelt's decision to abandon the gold standard , and claimed that "in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful money". [ 119 ]

Einsatzgruppe A members shoot Jews on the outskirts of Kaunas , 1941–1942

In the early 1940s the aviator Charles Lindbergh and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism . During his July 1936 visit to Germany, Lindbergh wrote letters saying that there was "more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized".

The German American Bund held parades in New York City during the late 1930s, where members wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American flags. With the start of US involvement in World War II most of the Bund's members were placed [ by whom? ] in internment camps , and some were deported [ by whom? ] at the end of the war.

Sometimes race riots, as in Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning. [ 120 ]

A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration camp

In Germany the National Socialist regime of Adolf Hitler , which came to power on 30 January 1933, instituted repressive legislation denying the Jews basic civil rights. It instituted a pogrom on the night of 9–10 November 1938, dubbed Kristallnacht , in which Jews were killed, their property destroyed and their synagogues torched. [ 121 ] Antisemitic laws, agitation and propaganda were extended to Nazi-occupied Europe in the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions. In the east the Third Reich forced Jews into ghettos in Warsaw , Krakow , Lvov , Lublin and Radom . [ 122 ] After the invasion of Russia in 1941 a campaign of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen , culminated between 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide : the Holocaust . [ 123 ] Eleven million Jews were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually killed. [ 123 ] [ 124 ] [ 125 ]

Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for personal conflicts in Soviet Russia , starting from conflict between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism in the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the "rootless cosmopolitan" (euphemism for "Jew") in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested. [ 126 ] [ 127 ] This culminated in the so-called Doctors' Plot (1952–1953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country. [ 127 ]

After the war, the Kielce pogrom and " March 1968 events " in communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood-libel rumours. [ 128 ] [ 129 ]

In 1965 Pope Paul VI issued a papal decree disbanding the cult of Simon of Trent , the shrine erected to him was dismantled, [ 130 ] and Simon was decanonized. [ 131 ]

[ edit ] Current situation

A March 2008 report by the US State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist. [ 132 ]

[ editar ] Causas

Dean Phillip Bell documents and enumerates a number of categories of causes for anti-Jewish sentiment and behavior. Socio-psychological explanations focus on scapegoating via projection of guilt and displaced aggression. Ethnic explanations associate marginalization of Jews with perceived ethnic and cultural differences. [ 133 ]

[ editar ] Estados Unidos

A 2007 survey by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) concluded that 15% of Americans hold antisemitic views, which was in-line with the average of the previous ten years, but a decline from the 29% of the early sixties. The survey concluded that education was a strong predictor, “with most educated Americans being remarkably free of prejudicial views.” The belief that Jews have too much power was considered a common antisemitic view by the ADL. Other views indicating antisemitism, according to the survey, include the view that Jews are more loyal to Israel than America, and that they are responsible for the death of Jesus of Nazareth . The survey found that antisemitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally, eg regarding immigration and free-speech. The 2007 survey also found that 29% of foreign-born Hispanics and 32% of African-Americans hold strong antisemitic beliefs, three times more than the 10% for whites. [ 134 ]

In November 2005, the US Commission on Civil Rights examined antisemitism on college campuses. It reported that "incidents of threatened bodily injury, physical intimidation or property damage are now rare", but antisemitism still occurs on many campuses and is a "serious problem." The Commission recommended that the US Department of Education 's Office for Civil Rights protect college students from antisemitism through vigorous enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and further recommended that Congress clarify that Title VI applies to discrimination against Jewish students. [ 135 ]

On 19 September 2006, Yale University founded the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti-Semitism (YIISA), the first North American university-based center for study of the subject, as part of its Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Director Charles Small of the Center cited the increase in antisemitism worldwide in recent years as generating a "need to understand the current manifestation of this disease". [ 136 ] In June 2011, Yale voted to close this initiative. After carrying out a routine review, the faculty review committee said that the initiative had not met its research and teaching standards. Donald Green, who heads Yale's Institution for Social and Policy Studies, the body under whose aegis the antisemitism initiative was run, said that it had not had many papers published in the relevant leading journals or attracted many students. As with other programs that had been in a similar situation, the initiative had therefore been cancelled. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] This decision has been criticized by figures such as former US Commission on Civil Rights Staff Director Kenneth L. Marcus , who is now the director of the Initiative to Combat Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism in America's Educational Systems at the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, and Deborah Lipstadt , who described the decision as "weird" and "strange." [ 139 ] Antony Lerman has supported Yale's decision, describing the YIISA as a politicized initiative that was devoted to the promotion of Israel rather than to serious research on antisemitism. [ 140 ]

A 2009 study published in Boston Review found that nearly 25% of non-Jewish Americans blamed Jews for the financial crisis of 2008–2009 , with a higher percentage among Democrats than Republicans. [ 141 ]

In August 2012, the California state assembly approved a non-binding resolution that "encourages university leaders to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti-Israel actions," although the resolution "is purely symbolic and does not carry policy implications." [ 142 ]

[ edit ] Latin America

[ edit ] Venezuela

In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. Schoen wrote, "In an infamous Christmas Eve speech several years ago, Chávez said the Jews killed Christ and have been gobbling up wealth and causing poverty and injustice worldwide ever since." [ 143 ] Hugo Chávez stated that "[t]he world is for all of us, then, but it so happens that a minority, the descendants of the same ones that crucified Christ, the descendants of the same ones that kicked Bolívar out of here and also crucified him in their own way over there in Santa Marta, in Colombia. A minority has taken possession of all of the wealth of the world." [ 144 ]

In February 2012, opposition candidate for the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election Henrique Capriles was subject to what foreign journalists characterized as vicious [ 145 ] attacks by state-run media sources. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] The Wall Street Journal said that Capriles "was vilified in a campaign in Venezuela's state-run media, which insinuated he was, among other things, a homosexual and a Zionist agent". [ 145 ] A 13 February 2012 opinion article in the state-owned Radio Nacional de Venezuela , titled "The Enemy is Zionism" [ 148 ] attacked Capriles' Jewish ancestry and linked him with Jewish national groups because of a meeting he had held with local Jewish leaders, [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 149 ] saying, "This is our enemy, the Zionism that Capriles today represents ... Zionism, along with capitalism, are responsible for 90% of world poverty and imperialist wars." [ 145 ]

[ editar ] Europa

According to a 2004 report from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs , antisemitism had increased significantly in Europe since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries. Germany, France, Britain, and Russia are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe. [ 150 ] The Netherlands and Sweden have also consistently had high rates of antisemitic attacks since 2000. [ 151 ]

Some claim that recent European antisemitic violence can actually be seen as a spillover from the long running Arab-Israeli conflict since the majority of the perpetrators are from the large Muslim immigrant communities in European cities . However, compared to France, the United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in Germany Arab and pro-Palestinian groups are involved in only a small percentage of antisemitic incidents. [ 150 ] [ 152 ] According to The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism , most of the more extreme attacks on Jewish sites and physical attacks on Jews in Europe come from militant Islamic and Muslim groups, and most Jews tend to be assaulted in countries where groups of young Muslim immigrants reside. [ 153 ]

On 1 January 2006, Britain's chief rabbi , Lord Jonathan Sacks , warned that what he called a "tsunami of antisemitism" was spreading globally. In an interview with BBC Radio 4 , Sacks said: "A number of my rabbinical colleagues throughout Europe have been assaulted and attacked on the streets. We've had synagogues desecrated. We've had Jewish schools burnt to the ground – not here but in France. People are attempting to silence and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on the grounds that Jews must support the state of Israel, therefore they should be banned, which is quite extraordinary because ... British Jews see themselves as British citizens. So it's that kind of feeling that you don't know what's going to happen next that's making ... some European Jewish communities uncomfortable." [ 154 ]

Following an escalation in antisemitism in 2012, which included the deadly shooting of three children at a Jewish school in France, the European Jewish Congress demanded in July a more proactive response. EJC President Moshe Kantor explained, "We call on authorities to take a more proactive approach so there would be no reason for statements of regret and denunciation. All these smaller attacks remind me of smaller tremors before a massive earthquake. The Jewish community cannot afford to be subject to an earthquake and the authorities cannot say that the writing was not on the wall." He added that European countries should take legislative efforts to ban any form of incitement , as well as to equip the authorities with the necessary tools to confront any attempt to expand terrorist and violent activities against Jewish communities in Europe. [ 155 ]

[ editar ] Alemania

The Interior Minister of Germany, Wolfgang Schäuble , points out the official policy of Germany: "We will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenophobia or anti-Semitism." [ 156 ] Although the number of extreme right-wing groups and organisations grew from 141 (2001) [ 157 ] to 182 (2006), [ 158 ] especially in the formerly communist East Germany, [ 156 ] Germany's measures against right-wing groups and antisemitism are effective, despite Germany having the highest rates of antisemitic acts in Europe. According to the annual reports of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution the overall number of far-right extremists in Germany dropped during the last years from 49,700 (2001), [ 157 ] 45,000 (2002), [ 157 ] 41,500 (2003), [ 157 ] 40,700 (2004), [ 158 ] 39,000 (2005), [ 158 ] to 38,600 in 2006. [ 158 ] Germany provided several million Euros to fund "nationwide programs aimed at fighting far-right extremism, including teams of traveling consultants, and victims' groups." [ 159 ]

In July 2012, two women were assaulted in Germany, sprayed with tear gas, and were shown a "Hitler salute," apparently because of a Star of David necklace that they wore. [ 160 ]

In late August 2012, Berlin police investigated an attack on a 53-year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, allegedly by four Arab teens, after which the rabbi needed treatment for head wounds at a hospital. The police classified the attack as a hate crime. Jüdische Allgemeine reported that the rabbi was wearing a kippah and was approached by one of the teens, who asked the rabbi if he was Jewish. The teen then attacked the rabbi while yelling antisemitic comments, and threatened to kill the rabbi's daughter. Berlin's mayor condemned the attack, saying that “Berlin is an international city in which intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being tolerated. Police will undertake all efforts to find and arrest the perpetrators.” [ 161 ]

In October 2012, various historians, including Dr. Julius H. Schoeps, a prominent German-Jewish historian and a member of the German Interior Ministry's commission to combat antisemitism, charged the majority of Bundestag deputies with failing to understand antisemitism and the imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German antisemitism. Schoeps cited various anti-Semitic statements by German parliament members as well. The report in question determined that 15% of Germans are anti-Semitic while over 20% espouse "latent anti-Semitism," but the report has been criticized for downplaying the sharpness of antisemitism in Germany, as well as for failing to examine anti-Israel media coverage in Germany. [ 162 ]

[ editar ] Los Países Bajos

Antisemitic incidents, from verbal abuse to violence, are reported, allegedly connected with Islamic youth, mostly boys of Moroccan descent. According to the Centre for Information and Documentation on Israel, a pro-Israel lobby group in the Netherlands, in 2009, the number of antisemitic incidents in Amsterdam , the city that is home to most of the approximately 40,000 Dutch Jews , was said to be doubled compared to 2008. [ 163 ] In 2010, Raphaël Evers, an orthodox rabbi in Amsterdam , told the Norwegian newspaper aftenposten that Jews can no longer be safe in the city anymore due to the risk of violent assaults. "Jews no longer feel at home in the city. Many are considering aliyah to Israel ." [ 164 ]

[ editar ] Reino Unido

In 2005, a group of British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into antisemitism, which published its findings in 2006. Its report stated that "until recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed only on the margins of society." It found a reversal of this progress since 2000. In his oral evidence, the Chief Rabbi stated: “If you were to ask me is Britain an antisemitic society, the answer is manifestly and obviously no. It is one of the least antisemitic societies in the world.” The inquiry set out to investigate the problem, identify the sources of contemporary antisemitism and make recommendations to improve the situation. It discussed the influence of the Israel-Palestine conflict and issues of anti-Israel sentiment versus antisemitism at length and noted "most of those who gave evidence were at pains to explain that criticism of Israel is not to be regarded in itself as antisemitic ... The Israeli government itself may, at times, have mistakenly perceived criticism of its policies and actions to be motivated by antisemitism." [ 165 ] In November 2010, the BBC 's investigative program Panorama reported that Saudi national textbooks advocating antisemitism were being used in Islamic religious programs attended by 5,000 British schoolchildren in the United Kingdom. In the textbooks, Jews were described as looking like monkeys and pigs, and said to be condemned to hellfire. [ 166 ]

A report released in 2012 by the Community Security Trust , documenting antisemitic incidents from January–June 2012, revealed that the number of incidents rose in these months compared to incidents in 2011, with 299 cases deemed antisemitic. There was a significant rise in the number of antisemitic incidents in March 2012, apparently influenced by the antisemitic terrorist attack in Toulouse, France during that month by Mohammed Merah. [ 167 ] [ 168 ]

[ editar ] Francia

France is home to the continent's largest Jewish community (about 600,000). Jewish leaders decry an intensifying antisemitism in France, mainly among Muslims of Arab or African heritage, but also growing among Caribbean islanders from former French colonies. [ 169 ] Former Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy denounced the killing of Ilan Halimi on 13 February 2006 as an antisemitic crime.

Jewish philanthropist Baron Eric de Rothschild suggests that the extent of antisemitism in France has been exaggerated. In an interview with The Jerusalem Post he says that "the one thing you can't say is that France is an anti-Semitic country." [ 170 ]

In March 2012, Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish school in Toulouse, killing a teacher and three children. A 8 year old girl was shot in the head at point blank range. President Nicolas Sarkozy said that it was "obvious" it was an antisemitic attack [ 171 ] and that, "I want to say to all the leaders of the Jewish community, how close we feel to them. All of France is by their side." The Israeli Prime Minister condemned the "despicable anti-Semitic" murders. [ 172 ] [ 173 ] After a 32 hour siege and standoff with the police outside his house, and a French raid, Merah jumped off a balcony and was shot in the head and killed. [ 174 ] Merah told police during the standoff that he intended to keep on attacking, and he loved death the way the police loved life. He also claimed connections with al-Qaeda. [ 175 ] [ 176 ] [ 177 ]

4 months later, in July 2012, a French Jewish teenager wearing a "distinctive religious symbol" was the victim of a violent antisemitic attack on a train travelling between Toulouse and Lyon. The teen was first verbally harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF , called the attack “another development in the worrying trend of anti-Semitism in our country.” [ 178 ]

Another incident in July 2012 dealt with the vandalism of the synagogue of Noisy-le-Grand of the Seine-Saint-Denis district in Paris . The synagogue was vandalized three times in a ten-day period. Prayer books and shawls were thrown on the floor, windows were shattered, drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and floors were vandalized. The authorities were alerted of the incidents by the Bureau National de Vigilance Contr L'Antisemtisme (BNVCA), a French antisemitism watchdog group, which called for more measures to be taken to prevent future hate crimes. BNVCA President Sammy Ghozlan stated that, "Despite the measures taken, things persist, and I think that we need additional legislation, because the Jewish community is annoyed." [ 179 ]

In August 2012, Abraham Cooper , the dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center , met French Interior Minister Manuel Valls and reported that antisemitic attacks against French Jews increased by 40% since Merah's shooting spree in Toulouse . Cooper pressed Valls to take extra measures to secure the safety of French Jews, as well as to discuss strategies to foil an increasing trend of lone-wolf terrorists on the Internet. [ 180 ]

[ edit ] Noruega

In 2010, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was common among some 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in Oslo's schools. Teachers at schools with large numbers of Muslims revealed that Muslim students often "praise or admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews ", that "Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students" and that "Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust ". Additionally, "while some students might protest when some express support for terrorism , none object when students express hate of Jews", saying that it says in "the Quran that you shall kill Jews, all true Muslims hate Jews". Most of these students were said to be born and raised in Norway. One Jewish father also stated that his child had been taken by a Muslim mob after school (though the child managed to escape), reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hung because he was a Jew". [ 181 ] [ 182 ]

Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen referred to the antisemitism reported in this study as being “completely unacceptable.” The head of a local Islamic council joined Jewish leaders and Halvorsen in denouncing such antisemitism. [ 183 ]

In October 2012, the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe issued a report regarding antisemitism in Norway, criticizing Norway for an increase in antisemitism in the country and blaming Norwegian officials for failing to address antisemitism." [ 184 ]

[ editar ] Suecia

After Germany and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe, though the Netherlands has reported a higher rate of antisemitism in some years. [ 151 ] A government study in 2006 estimated that 15% of Swedes agree with the statement: "The Jews have too much influence in the world today". [ 185 ] 5% of the entire adult population, and 39% of the Muslim population, harbor strong and consistent antisemitic views. Former Prime Minister Göran Persson described these results as "surprising and terrifying". However, the Rabbi of Stockholm's Orthodox Jewish community, Meir Horden claimed that "It's not true to say that the Swedes are anti-Semitic. Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be." [ 186 ]

In 2009, a synagoguage that served the Jewish community in Malmö was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused while returning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly chanted "Hitler" in the streets. As a result of security concerns, Malmö's synagogue has guards and rocket-proof glass in the windows, and the Jewish kindergarten can only be reached through thick steel security doors. [ 187 ]

In early 2010, the Swedish publication The Local published series of articles about the growing antisemitism in Malmö, Sweden . In an interview in January 2010, Fredrik Sieradzki of the Jewish Community of Malmö stated that "Threats against Jews have increased steadily in Malmö in recent years and many young Jewish families are choosing to leave the city. Many feel that the community and local politicians have shown a lack of understanding for how the city's Jewish residents have been marginalized." He also added that "right now many Jews in Malmö are really concerned about the situation here and don't believe they have a future here." The Local also reported that Jewish cemeteries and synagogues have repeatedly been defaced with antisemitic graffiti, and a chapel at another Jewish burial site in Malmö was firebombed in 2009. [ 188 ] In 2009 the Malmö police received reports of 79 antisemitic incidents, which was twice the number of the previous year (2008). [ 189 ] Fredrik Sieradzki, spokesman for the Malmö Jewish community, estimated that the already small Jewish population is shrinking by 5% a year. "Malmö is a place to move away from," he said, citing antisemitism as the primary reason. [ 190 ]

In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk told Die Presse , an Austrian Internet publication, that Jews are being "harassed and physically attacked" by "people from the Middle East," although he added that only a small number of Malmö's 40,000 Muslims "exhibit hatred of Jews." Sieradzk also stated that approximately 30 Jewish families have emigrated from Malmö to Israel in the past year, specifically to escape from harassment. Also in March, the Swedish newspaper Skånska Dagbladet reported that attacks on Jews in Malmö totaled 79 in 2009, about twice as many as the previous year, according to police statistics. [ 191 ]

In October 2010, The Forward reported on the current state of Jews and the level of antisemitism in Sweden. Henrik Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the University of Lund, claimed that members of the Swedish Parliament have attended anti-Israel rallies where the Israeli flag was burned while the flags of Hamas and Hezbollah were waved, and the rhetoric was often antisemitic—not just anti-Israel. But such public rhetoric is not branded hateful and denounced. Charles Small, director of the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism , stated that "Sweden is a microcosm of contemporary anti-Semitism. It's a form of acquiescence to radical Islam, which is diametrically opposed to everything Sweden stands for." Per Gudmundson, chief editorial writer for Svenska Dagbladet , has sharply criticized politicians who offer "weak excuses" for Muslims accused of anti-Semitic crimes. "Politicians say these kids are poor and oppressed, and we have made them hate. They are, in effect, saying the behavior of these kids is in some way our fault." [ 192 ] Judith Popinski, an 86-year-old Holocaust survivor, stated that she is no longer invited to schools that have a large Muslim presence to tell her story of surviving the Holocaust. Popinski, who found refuge in Malmö in 1945, stated that, until recently, she told her story in Malmö schools as part of their Holocaust studies program, but that now, many schools no longer ask Holocaust survivors to tell their stories, because Muslim students treat them with such disrespect, either ignoring the speakers or walking out of the class. She further stated that "Malmö reminds me of the anti-Semitism I felt as a child in Poland before the war. I am not safe as a Jew in Sweden anymore." [ 190 ]

In December 2010, the Jewish human rights organization Simon Wiesenthal Center issued a travel advisory concerning Sweden, advising Jews to express "extreme caution" when visiting the southern parts of the country due to an alleged increase in verbal and physical harassment of Jewish citizens in the city of Malmö . [ 193 ]

Ilmar Reepalu , the mayor of Malmö for over 15 years, has been accused of failing to protect the Jewish community in Malmö, causing 30 Jewish families to leave the city in 2010, and more preparing to leave, which has left the possibility that Malmö's Jewish community will disappear soon. Critics of Reepalu say that his statements, such as antisemitism in Malmö actually being an "understandable" consequence of Israeli policy in the Middle East, have encouraged young Muslims to abuse and harass the Jewish community. [ 187 ] In an interview with the Sunday Telegraph in February 2010, Reepalu said, "There haven't been any attacks on Jewish people, and if Jews from the city want to move to Israel that is not a matter for Malmö," which renewed concerns about Reepalu. [ 194 ]

[ editar ] Medio Oriente

Robert Bernstein , founder of Human Rights Watch , says that antisemitism is "deeply ingrained and institutionalized" in "Arab nations in modern times." [ 195 ]

In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center , all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held strongly negative views of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians , 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East held similarly negative views, with 4% of Turks and 9% of Indonesians viewing Jews favorably. [ 196 ]

Edward Rothstein , cultural critic of The New York Times , writes that some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi propaganda . [ 197 ] According to Josef Joffe of Newsweek , "anti-Semitism—the real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular Israeli policies—is as much part of Arab life today as the hijab or the hookah. Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the West, in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally endemic." [ 198 ]

In the Middle East, anti-Zionist propaganda frequently adopts the terminology and symbols of the Holocaust to demonize Israel and its leaders.

Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to Jews as descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews and Christians. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] [ 201 ]

According to professor Robert Wistrich , director of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel by Iran or by Hamas , Hezbollah , Islamic Jihad , or the Muslim Brotherhood , represent a contemporary mode of genocidal anti-Semitism. [ 202 ]

[ editar ] Egipto

In Egypt , Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford 's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew , complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover. [ 203 ]

On 5 May 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egypt , the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that "lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews[...]. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs." [ 204 ]

In July 2012, Egypt's Al Nahar channel fooled actors into thinking they were on an Israeli television show and filmed their reactions to being told it was an Israeli television show. In response, some of the actors launched into antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became violent. Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that "Allah did not curse the worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews while actor Mahmoud Abdel Ghaffar launched into a violent rage and said, "You brought me someone who looks like a Jew... I hate the Jews to death" after finding out it was a prank. [ 205 ] [ 206 ]

[ edit ] Palestinian Territories

Mudar Zahran, a Palestinian, writing for the Hudson Institute says that "the Palestinians have been used as fuel for the new form of anti-Semitism; this has hurt the Palestinians and exposed them to unprecedented and purposely media-ignored abuse by Arab governments, including some of those who claim love for the Palestinians, yet in fact only bear hatred to Jews. This has resulted in Palestinian cries for justice, equality, freedom and even basic human rights being ignored while the world getting consumed with delegitimizing Israel from either ignorance or malice." [ 207 ]

In March 2011, the Israeli government issued a paper claiming that "Anti-Israel and anti-Semitic messages are heard regularly in the government and private media and in the mosques and are taught in school books," to the extent that they are "an integral part of the fabric of life inside the PA." [ 208 ] In August 2012, Israeli Strategic Affairs Ministry director-general Yossi Kuperwasser stated that Palestinian incitement to antisemitism is "going on all the time" and that it is "worrying and disturbing." At an institutional level, he said the PA has been promoting three key messages to the Palestinian people that constitute incitement: "that the Palestinians would eventually be the sole sovereign on all the land from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea; that Jews, especially those who live in Israel, were not really human beings but rather 'the scum of mankind'; and that all tools were legitimate in the struggle against Israel and the Jews." [ 209 ]

Haj Amin al-Husseini meeting with Adolf Hitler , December 1941. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem helped recruit Muslims for the Waffen-SS .

[ edit ] Iran

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran has frequently denied the Holocaust.

In July, the winner of Iran's first annual International Wall Street Downfall Cartoon Festival, jointly sponsored by the semi-state-run Iranian media outlet Fars News , was an antisemitic cartoon depicting Jews praying before the New York Stock Exchange , which is made to look like the Western Wall . Other cartoons in the contest were antisemitic as well. The national director of the Anti-Defamation League, Abraham Foxman, condemned the cartoon, stating that "Here's the anti-Semitic notion of Jews and their love for money, the canard that Jews 'control' Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western Wall, the holiest site in Judaism," and "Once again Iran takes the prize for promoting antisemitism." [ 210 ] [ 211 ] [ 212 ]

[ edit ] Lebanon

In 2004, Al-Manar aired a drama series, The Diaspora , which observers allege is based on historical antisemitic allegations. BBC correspondents who have watched the program says it quotes extensively from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion . [ 213 ]

[ edit ] Saudi Arabia

The website of the Saudi Arabian Supreme Commission for Tourism initially stated that Jews would not be granted tourist visas to enter the country. [ 214 ] [ 215 ] The Saudi embassy in the US distanced itself from the statement, which was later removed. [ 216 ] Members of religions other than Islam , including Jews, are not permitted to practice their religion publicly in Saudi Arabia.

In 2001, Arab Radio and Television of Saudi Arabia produced a 30-part television miniseries entitled "Horseman Without a Horse", a dramatization of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion . [ 217 ] One Saudi Arabian government newspaper suggested that hatred of all Jews is justifiable. [ 218 ]

Saudi textbooks vilify Jews (and Christians and non- Wahabi Muslims): according to the 21 May 2006 issue of The Washington Post , Saudi textbooks claimed by them to have been sanitized of antisemitism still call Jews apes (and Christians swine); demand that students avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that Jews worship the devil; and encourage Muslims to engage in Jihad to vanquish Jews. [ 219 ]

The Center for Religious Freedom of Freedom House analyzed a set of Saudi Ministry of Education textbooks in Islamic studies courses for elementary and secondary school students. The researchers found statements promoting hate of Christians, Jews, "polytheists" and other "unbelievers," including non-Wahabi Muslims. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was taught as historical fact. The texts described Jews and Christians as enemies of Muslim believers and the clash between them as an ongoing fight that will end in victory over the Jews. Jews were blamed for virtually all the "subversion" and wars of the modern world. [ 220 ] A 38-page overview PDF (371 KB) of Saudi Arabia's curriculum has been released to the press by the Hudson Institute .

The BBC aired a Panorama episode, entitled A Question of Leadership , which reported that al-Sudais referred to Jews as "the scum of the human race" and "offspring of apes and pigs", and stated, "the worst [...] of the enemies of Islam are those [...] whom he [...] made monkeys and pigs, the aggressive Jews and oppressive Zionists and those that follow them [...] Monkeys and pigs and worshippers of false Gods who are the Jews and the Zionists." Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is the leading imam of the Grand mosque located in the Islamic holy city of Mecca , Saudi Arabia . [ 221 ] [ 222 ] In another sermon, on 19 April 2002, he declared that Jews are "evil offspring, infidels, distorters of [others'] words, calf-worshippers, prophet-murderers, prophecy-deniers [...] the scum of the human race whom Allah cursed and turned into apes and pigs [...]" [ 223 ]

[ editar ] Asia

[ edit ] Malaysia

Although Malaysia presently has no Jewish population, the country has reportedly become an example of a phenomenon called “Anti-Semitism without Jews."

In his treatise on Malay identity, "The Malay Dilemma," which was published in 1970, former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad wrote: "The Jews are not only hooked-nosed ... but understand money instinctively. ... Jewish stinginess and financial wizardry gained them the economic control of Europe and provoked antisemitism which waxed and waned throughout Europe through the ages." [ 224 ]

The Malay-language Utusan Malaysia daily stated in an editorial that Malaysians "cannot allow anyone, especially the Jews, to interfere secretly in this country's business... When the drums are pounded hard in the name of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country," the newspaper said. "We might not realize that the enthusiasm to support actions such as demonstrations will cause us to help foreign groups succeed in their mission of controlling this country." Prime Minister Najib Razak 's office susbsequently issued a statement late Monday saying Utusan's claim did "not reflect the views of the government." [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ]

[ edit ] Turquía

In recent decades, synagogues have been targeted in a number of terrorist attacks. In 2003, the Neve Shalom Synagogue was targeted in a car bombing, killing 21 Turkish Muslims and 6 Jews. [ 228 ]

In June 2011, the Economist suggested that "The best way for Turks to promote democracy would be to vote against the ruling party". Not long after, the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , said that "The International media, as they are supported by Israel, would not be happy with the continuation of the AKP government". [ 229 ] The Hurriyet Daily News quoted Erdoğan at the time as claiming "The Economist is part of an Israeli conspiracy that aims to topple the Turkish government". [ 230 ] Moreover, during Erdogan's tenure, Hitler's Mein Kampf has once again become a best selling book in Turkey. [ 229 ] Prime Minister Erdogan called antisemitism a "crime against humanity." He also said that "as a minority, they're our citizens. Both their security and the right to observe their faith are under our guarantee." [ 231 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Notas

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[ editar ] Referencias

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  • Poliakov, Leon . The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 3: From Voltaire to Wagner , University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003
  • Poliakov, Leon . The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 4: Suicidal Europe 1870–1933 , University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003
  • Poliakov, Leon (1997). "Anti-Semitism". Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth . Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
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[ editar ] Otras lecturas

[ editar ] Enlaces externos